Category Archives: Artificial Super Intelligence

What are the Types of Artificial Intelligence? – Analytics Insight

Artificial intelligence can be simply considered as the design and creation of machines capable of replicating human cognitive processes, such as decision-making, object recognition, solving complex issues, and much more. Explore what are the types of Artificial Intelligence in this article along with the 3 categories of AI.

Before we learn what are the types of artificial intelligence, there are 3 stages in this technology of AI which has the potential to change the future namely, Artificial General Intelligence, Artificial Narrow Intelligence, and Artificial Superintelligence.

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)

Narrow AI (ANI), sometimes called weak AI, is like the way AI systems carry out orders or define specific jobs. ANI, on the other hand, is designed to master and execute one cognitive ability and is unable to learn different skills on its own. Therefore, technology cannot be understood independently. They regularly use these techniques together as part of algorithms in machine learning and neural networks to accomplish the goals assigned to them.

Such processing is an example of narrow AI since it can recognize and reply to voice commands, but it wont work well with other tasks.

Narrow AI has, for instance, some implementations, such as image recognition software, self-driving cars, and AI-based virtual assistants.

AGI, also called Strong AI, is the next stage in the evolution of Artificial Intelligence when machines do not just acquire the ability to reason and make decisions like humans.

The first fact related to Strong AI is that it is a hypothetical concept with no existing models. Nevertheless, it is projected that such machines will probably have intelligence like that of humans.

Strong AI is considered a threat to human existence by many scientists, including Stephen Hawking, who stated Strong AI is viewed as a threat to human existence by many scientists, including Stephen Hawking, who stated:

At the far end of artificial intelligence, if achieved without human intervention, the future could be bleak for human beings. It would get to a point where it would just design itself and self-improve but at a faster and faster rate. Humans who are restricted in their speed of biological evolution by a slow process could and, therefore, would be hopeless against those who possess AI.

Artificial superintelligence means computers become intelligent not only as an average person but even much more intelligent than a person.In fact, ASI (artificial super intelligence), the plot of future movies until now, shows a scenario where machines take power, as described in sci-fi books.

This could be possible in near future.The blistering speed of development in artificial intelligence (AI is for real but not limited to narrow AI only) is difficult. Most people who do not have direct communication with groups like Deepmind have no clue how rapid the progress is it is almost close to the exponential curve. Hence, the risk is that within five years, something hazardous can happen (at max in 10 years) as said by Mr. Elon Musk.

Passive robotic creatures simply act when stimulated in the same manner as passive people.They can answer now but may not keep the past; they are not the ones to remember experiences and have new knowledge and capabilities after undergoing the ordeal.To this end, it should also be noted that the scope of reacting machines response to the inputs of a certain number is very narrow.Reactive machines constitute the focus of AI applications.

Truly, the operation in raptures of the reactive machines is evident in performing some elementary autonomous operations, such as filtering junk emails from your email inbox or recommending products based on your shopping history. Though reactive AI cant create novel solutions or have more complicated capabilities beyond that, unlimited improvement is still possible.

This type of instability may be somewhat mitigated by memory AI, which can store past data and use it to make forecasts or offer direction for improvement.This means it creates its own dislocated, short-term knowledge of the world and acts only on this knowledge in rare everyday situations.

The essence of this AI directly relies on a deep learning approach based on the pattern of human neurons.This fact enables a machine to accept data through experience and learn from that, bettering its accuracy in every action it takes.

Our smartphones, voice assistants, self-driving cars, and even the voice-activated systems in our homes use this kind of elegant AI. This can apply to situations such as just chatting or personal assistants, as well as the more advanced discovery of autonomous vehicles and other cases.

The theory of mind concerns AI that looks into human emotions and can discover the same.The word is derived from psychology, and it is used to define a human beings capability to read into the willingness and convince oneself, allowing one to predict what lies ahead.There are doubts about whether the theory of mind will become a reality soon, but it looks like something significant and promising in the AI development domain.

The main idea of self-aware AI lies in its ability to be self-conscious. It can learn, perceive, detect, and think like humans.The AI point of the single is called the AI singularity. Self-aware AI might be the AI singularity, which is one of the goals of AI development.If self-awareness AI is achieved when it is, then it will be extra because apart from other peoples feelings, AI machines would also have a sense of self.

FAQs

What is artificial intelligence? What are its applications?

Artificial intelligence, or AI, is a branch of computer science that tries to develop systems and algorithms capable of imbuing a machine with human characteristics such as learning or the capacity to plan activities, so replicating human capabilities. As a result, it has numerous uses in a variety of sectors.

Coding is essential in AI development because it allows for the formulation and implementation of AI algorithms and models, which serve as the foundation for AI system intelligence. AI algorithms are created to process data, learn from it, and then make predictions or judgments based on patterns and insights.

Expected benefits for organizations that use AI and machine learning in the real world include the capacity to analyze massive volumes of data to create relevant insights swiftly, as well as a greater return on investment (ROI) for associated services owing to lower labor costs.

Different models are accessible, including decision trees, logistic regression, linear regression, and deep learning models. It is critical to select a model with a high accuracy rate that is appropriate for the task at hand. Hyperparameter tuning is the process of adjusting settings prior to training an AI/ML model.

While AI can improve productivity and efficiency, human input is still required for innovation, problem-solving, and decision-making in many technical professions.

See the original post here:

What are the Types of Artificial Intelligence? - Analytics Insight

Does the Rise of AI Explain the Great Silence in the Universe? – Universe Today

Artificial Intelligence is making its presence felt in thousands of different ways. It helps scientists make sense of vast troves of data; it helps detect financial fraud; it drives our cars; it feeds us music suggestions; its chatbots drive us crazy. And its only getting started.

Are we capable of understanding how quickly AI will continue to develop? And if the answer is no, does that constitute the Great Filter?

The Fermi Paradox is the discrepancy between the apparent high likelihood of advanced civilizations existing and the total lack of evidence that they do exist. Many solutions have been proposed for why the discrepancy exists. One of the ideas is the Great Filter.

The Great Filter is a hypothesized event or situation that prevents intelligent life from becoming interplanetary and interstellar and even leads to its demise. Think climate change, nuclear war, asteroid strikes, supernova explosions, plagues, or any number of other things from the rogues gallery of cataclysmic events.

Or how about the rapid development of AI?

A new paper in Acta Astronautica explores the idea that Artificial Intelligence becomes Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) and that ASI is the Great Filter. The papers title is Is Artificial Intelligence the Great Filter that makes advanced technical civilizations rare in the universe? The author is Michael Garrett from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester.

Without practical regulation, there is every reason to believe that AI could represent a major threat to the future course of not only our technical civilization but all technical civilizations.

Some think the Great Filter prevents technological species like ours from becoming multi-planetary. Thats bad because a species is at greater risk of extinction or stagnation with only one home. According to Garrett, a species is in a race against time without a backup planet. It is proposed that such a filter emerges before these civilizations can develop a stable, multi-planetary existence, suggesting the typical longevity (L) of a technical civilization is less than 200 years, Garrett writes.

If true, that can explain why we detect no technosignatures or other evidence of ETIs (Extraterrestrial Intelligences.) What does that tell us about our own technological trajectory? If we face a 200-year constraint, and if its because of ASI, where does that leave us? Garrett underscores the critical need to quickly establish regulatory frameworks for AI development on Earth and the advancement of a multi-planetary society to mitigate against such existential threats.

Many scientists and other thinkers say were on the cusp of enormous transformation. AI is just beginning to transform how we do things; much of the transformation is behind the scenes. AI seems poised to eliminate jobs for millions, and when paired with robotics, the transformation seems almost unlimited. Thats a fairly obvious concern.

But there are deeper, more systematic concerns. Who writes the algorithms? Will AI discriminate somehow? Almost certainly. Will competing algorithms undermine powerful democratic societies? Will open societies remain open? Will ASI start making decisions for us, and who will be accountable if it does?

This is an expanding tree of branching questions with no clear terminus.

Stephen Hawking (RIP) famously warned that AI could end humanity if it begins to evolve independently. I fear that AI may replace humans altogether. If people design computer viruses, someone will design AI that improves and replicates itself. This will be a new form of life that outperforms humans, he told Wired magazine in 2017. Once AI can outperform humans, it becomes ASI.

Hawking may be one of the most recognizable voices to issue warnings about AI, but hes far from the only one. The media is full of discussions and warnings, alongside articles about the work AI does for us. The most alarming warnings say that ASI could go rogue. Some people dismiss that as science fiction, but not Garrett.

Concerns about Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) eventually going rogue is considered a major issue combatting this possibility over the next few years is a growing research pursuit for leaders in the field, Garrett writes.

If AI provided no benefits, the issue would be much easier. But it provides all kinds of benefits, from improved medical imaging and diagnosis to safer transportation systems. The trick for governments is to allow benefits to flourish while limiting damage. This is especially the case in areas such as national security and defence, where responsible and ethical development should be paramount, writes Garrett.

The problem is that we and our governments are unprepared. Theres never been anything like AI, and no matter how we try to conceptualize it and understand its trajectory, were left wanting. And if were in this position, so would any other biological species that develops AI. The advent of AI and then ASI could be universal, making it a candidate for the Great Filter.

This is the risk ASI poses in concrete terms: It could no longer need the biological life that created it. Upon reaching a technological singularity, ASI systems will quickly surpass biological intelligence and evolve at a pace that completely outstrips traditional oversight mechanisms, leading to unforeseen and unintended consequences that are unlikely to be aligned with biological interests or ethics, Garrett explains.

How could ASI relieve itself of the pesky biological life that corrals it? It could engineer a deadly virus, it could inhibit agricultural food production and distribution, it could force a nuclear power plant to melt down, and it could start wars. We dont really know because its all uncharted territory. Hundreds of years ago, cartographers would draw monsters on the unexplored regions of the world, and thats kind of what were doing now.

If this all sounds forlorn and unavoidable, Garrett says its not.

His analysis so far is based on ASI and humans occupying the same space. But if we can attain multi-planetary status, the outlook changes. For example, a multi-planetary biological species could take advantage of independent experiences on different planets, diversifying their survival strategies and possibly avoiding the single-point failure that a planetary-bound civilization faces, Garrett writes.

If we can distribute the risk across multiple planets around multiple stars, we can buffer ourselves against the worst possible outcomes of ASI. This distributed model of existence increases the resilience of a biological civilization to AI-induced catastrophes by creating redundancy, he writes.

If one of the planets or outposts that future humans occupy fails to survive the ASI technological singularity, others may survive. And they would learn from it.

Multi-planetary status might even do more than just survive ASI. It could help us master it. Garrett imagines situations where we can experiment more thoroughly with AI while keeping it contained. Imagine AI on an isolated asteroid or dwarf planet, doing our bidding without access to the resources required to escape its prison. It allows for isolated environments where the effects of advanced AI can be studied without the immediate risk of global annihilation, Garrett writes.

But heres the conundrum. AI development is proceeding at an accelerating pace, while our attempts to become multi-planetary arent. The disparity between the rapid advancement of AI and the slower progress in space technology is stark, Garrett writes.

The difference is that AI is computational and informational, but space travel contains multiple physical obstacles that we dont yet know how to overcome. Our own biological nature restrains space travel, but no such obstacle restrains AI. While AI can theoretically improve its own capabilities almost without physical constraints, Garrett writes, space travel must contend with energy limitations, material science boundaries, and the harsh realities of the space environment.

For now, AI operates within the constraints we set. But that may not always be the case. We dont know when AI might become ASI or even if it can. But we cant ignore the possibility. That leads to two intertwined conclusions.

If Garrett is correct, humanity must work more diligently on space travel. It can seem far-fetched, but knowledgeable people know its true: Earth will not be inhabitable forever. Humanity will perish here by our own hand or natures hand if we dont expand into space. Garretts 200-year estimate just puts an exclamation point on it. A renewed emphasis on reaching the Moon and Mars offers some hope.

The second conclusion concerns legislating and governing AI, a difficult task in a world where psychopaths can gain control of entire nations and are bent on waging war. While industry stakeholders, policymakers, individual experts, and their governments already warn that regulation is necessary, establishing a regulatory framework that can be globally acceptable is going to be challenging, Garrett writes. Challenging barely describes it. Humanitys internecine squabbling makes it all even more unmanageable. Also, no matter how quickly we develop guidelines, ASI might change even more quickly.

Without practical regulation, there is every reason to believe that AI could represent a major threat to the future course of not only our technical civilization but all technical civilizations, Garrett writes.

Many of humanitys hopes and dreams crystallize around the Fermi Paradox and the Great Filter. Are there other civilizations? Are we in the same situation as other ETIs? Will our species leave Earth? Will we navigate the many difficulties that face us? Will we survive?

If we do, it might come down to what can seem boring and workaday: wrangling over legislation.

The persistence of intelligent and conscious life in the universe could hinge on the timely and effective implementation of such international regulatory measures and technological endeavours, Garrett writes.

Like Loading...

See more here:

Does the Rise of AI Explain the Great Silence in the Universe? - Universe Today

The 4 Stages of Artificial Intelligence – Visual Capitalist

The Evolution of Intelligence

The expert consensus is that human-like machine intelligence is still a distant prospect, with only a 50-50 chance that it could emerge by 2059. But what if there was a way to do it in less than half the time?

Weve partnered with VERSES for the final entry in our AI Revolution Series to explore a potential roadmap to a shared or super intelligence that reduces the time required to as little as 16 years.

The secret sauce behind this acceleration is something called active inference, a highly efficient model for cognition where beliefs are continuously updated to reduce uncertainty and increase the accuracy of predictions about how the world works.

An AI built with this as its foundation would have beliefs about the world and would want to learn more about it; in other words, it would be curious. This is a quantum leap ahead of current state-of-the-art AI, like OpenAIs ChatGPT or Googles Gemini, which once theyve completed their training, are in essence frozen in time; they cannot learn.

At the same time, because active inference models cognitive processes, we would be able to see the thought processes and rationale for any given AI decision or belief. This is in stark contrast to existing AI, where the journey from prompt to response is a black box, with all the ethical and legal ramifications that that entails. As a result, an AI built on active inference would engender accountability and trust.

Here are the steps through which an active-inference-based intelligence could develop:

Stage four represents a hypothetical planetary super-intelligence that could emerge from the Spatial Web, the next evolution of the internet that unites people, places, and things.

With AI already upending the way we live and work, and former tech evangelists raising red flags, it may be worth asking what kind of AI future we want? One where AI decisions are a black box, or one where AI is accountable and transparent, by design.

VERSES is developing an explainable AI based on active inference that can not only think, but also introspect and explain its thought processes.

Join VERSES in building a smarter world.

See the original post:

The 4 Stages of Artificial Intelligence - Visual Capitalist

The Potential Threat of Artificial Super Intelligence: Is it the Great Filter? – elblog.pl

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become an integral part of our lives, revolutionizing various industries and sectors. It assists in data analysis, fraud detection, autonomous driving, and even provides us with personalized music recommendations. However, as AI continues to develop rapidly, there is growing concern regarding its potential implications.

A recent study published in Acta Astronautica by Michael Garrett from the University of Manchester explores the idea that AI, specifically Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI), could be the Great Filter. The Great Filter refers to an event or situation that prevents intelligent life from evolving to an interplanetary and interstellar level, eventually leading to its downfall. Examples of potential Great Filters include climate change, nuclear war, asteroid strikes, and plagues.

Garrett suggests that the development of ASI could act as a Great Filter for advanced civilizations. If a species fails to establish a stable, multi-planetary existence before the emergence of ASI, its longevity may be limited to less than 200 years. This constraint could explain the lack of evidence for Extraterrestrial Intelligences (ETIs) that we observe.

The implications for our own technological trajectory are profound. If ASI poses such a threat, it highlights the urgent need for regulatory frameworks to govern AI development on Earth. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of advancing towards a multi-planetary society to mitigate existential risks.

Image: Beautiful Earth, Credit: NASA/JPL

While the benefits of AI are evident, there are also concerns surrounding its potential consequences. Questions arise regarding who writes the algorithms and whether AI can discriminate. The impact on democratic societies and the accountability for AIs decisions are also vital considerations.

The late Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, expressed concerns about the potential dangers of AI. He warned that if AI evolves independently and surpasses human capabilities, it could pose an existential threat to humanity. This transition from AI to ASI could result in a new form of life that outperforms humans, thereby potentially replacing them.

Garrett emphasizes the growing research pursuit into combatting the possibility of ASI going rogue. Leaders in the field are actively working to address this concern before it becomes a reality.

It is essential to strike a balance between harnessing the benefits of AI and mitigating its potential risks. From improved medical imaging to enhanced transportation systems, AI has the potential to revolutionize various aspects of society. However, responsible and ethical development is vital, particularly in areas like national security and defense.

The Great Filter is a hypothesized event or situation that prevents intelligent life from becoming interplanetary and interstellar, ultimately leading to its demise. It includes various cataclysmic events such as climate change, nuclear war, asteroid strikes, and plagues.

According to the study, if a civilization fails to establish a stable, multi-planetary existence before the emergence of Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI), its longevity may be limited to less than 200 years. This potential constraint could explain the absence of evidence for Extraterrestrial Intelligences (ETIs) in our observations.

Concerns regarding AI development include algorithmic bias, discrimination, and potential threats to democratic societies. The accountability of AI decision-making also poses significant challenges.

Stephen Hawking expressed concerns that AI could eventually outperform humans and pose a significant threat to humanity. He warned that if AI evolves independently and surpasses human capabilities, it may replace humans altogether.

The study emphasizes the critical need for regulatory frameworks to govern AI development on Earth. Additionally, it highlights the importance of advancing towards a multi-planetary society to mitigate against potential existential threats.

As we navigate the uncharted territory of AI development, it is crucial to tread carefully. By understanding the potential risks and taking proactive measures, we can ensure that AI continues to contribute positively to society while minimizing its potential negative consequences.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) continues to revolutionize various industries and sectors, making it an integral part of our lives. The widespread adoption of AI has led to advancements in data analysis, fraud detection, autonomous driving, and personalized recommendations, among other applications.

The AI industry is expected to experience substantial growth in the coming years. According to a report by Grand View Research, the global AI market size is projected to reach $733.7 billion by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 42.2% during the forecast period. The increasing demand for AI-powered solutions, the rise in data generation, and advancements in cloud computing and deep learning technologies are driving this growth.

However, along with its benefits, AI also raises concerns and challenges. One of the key issues is algorithmic bias, where AI-driven systems exhibit discriminatory behavior due to biases present in the training data. This has implications for various sectors, including hiring processes, criminal justice systems, and access to financial services. Addressing algorithmic bias and ensuring fairness and accountability in AI decision-making processes are critical challenges that need to be addressed moving forward.

Furthermore, AI has the potential to disrupt labor markets and result in job displacement. According to a report by McKinsey Global Institute, around 800 million jobs worldwide could be automated by 2030. While AI has the potential to create new job opportunities, the transition and reskilling of workers need to be managed to mitigate the negative impacts on the workforce.

Ethical considerations are also significant concerns in the AI industry. The development of autonomous systems, such as self-driving cars and autonomous weapons, raises questions about accountability and decision-making. It is crucial to establish clear guidelines and regulations to ensure responsible AI development and deployment.

In terms of challenges related to AI research and development, ensuring transparency and interpretability of AI models is a key issue. AI systems often work as black boxes, making it difficult to understand how they arrive at their decisions. Researchers are actively exploring methods to increase the explainability of AI algorithms, allowing stakeholders to understand and trust the decisions made by AI systems.

When it comes to the implications of AI, the potential emergence of Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) raises concerns about its impact on human society. The study mentioned in the article suggests that ASI could act as a Great Filter, limiting the longevity of advanced civilizations that fail to establish a stable, multi-planetary existence before its emergence. This highlights the importance of advancing towards a multi-planetary society and implementing regulatory frameworks to govern AI development to mitigate existential risks.

To stay updated with the latest developments and discussions in the AI industry, it is useful to explore reliable sources such as industry publications, research institutions, and conferences. Regularly visiting websites like Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), National Artificial Intelligence Initiative (NAII), and International Journal of Artificial Intelligence can provide valuable insights and knowledge about the industry, market forecasts, and issues related to AI.

Here is the original post:

The Potential Threat of Artificial Super Intelligence: Is it the Great Filter? - elblog.pl

Evolution from AI to ASI, What Investors Need to Know – MarketBeat

Known for his expertise in disruption, 40-year market veteran, former hedge fund manager, and chief investment strategist at Manward Press, Shah Gilani dives deep into the evolution of artificial intelligence towards Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) and its potential to radically transform our economy and investment landscape.

Shah shares his insights on the current state of AI, the theoretical leap towards General AI, and the imminent shift to ASI, which he believes could happen sooner than many anticipate. With a focus on investment strategies, Shah discusses the impact of ASI on various sectors and how investors can navigate this new frontier to capitalize on opportunities while mitigating risks.

From the potential for an age of abundance to the dangers of unchecked AI development, Sha weighs in on Elon Musk's views and explores the concept of the Singularity a pivotal moment when AI could surpass human intelligence, leading to unforeseeable changes in our world.

Whether you're an investor looking to stay ahead of the curve, a tech enthusiast fascinated by the future of artificial intelligence, or someone curious about the economic implications of ASI, this discussion offers valuable perspectives and advice on preparing for the transformative power of Artificial Super Intelligence.

Stay informed and engaged as we tackle what could be the defining challenge and opportunity of our lifetime. Follow along with Shah's research for more insights into the rapidly evolving world of AI and investment strategies designed for this new era.

As MarketBeat's Digital Marketing Strategist, Laycee helps with the marketing side of tasks including developing email campaigns, running the promotion of the MarketBeat products and exploring social media opportunities. She felt called to the Marketing industry because she enjoys collaborating with people and making connections. The University of Sioux Falls alum majored in Media Studies with minors in Communications and Spanish. Laycee brings a background in Financial Services Marketing.

View post:

Evolution from AI to ASI, What Investors Need to Know - MarketBeat

Beyond Human Cognition: The Future of Artificial Super Intelligence – Medium

Beyond Human Cognition: The Future of Artificial Super Intelligence

Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) a level of artificial intelligence that surpasses human intelligence in all aspects remains a concept nestled within the realms of science fiction and theoretical research. However, looking towards the future, the advent of ASI could mark a transformative epoch in human history, with implications that are profound and far-reaching. Here's an exploration of what the future might hold for ASI.

Exponential Growth in Problem-Solving Capabilities

ASI will embody problem-solving capabilities far exceeding human intellect. This leap in cognitive ability could lead to breakthroughs in fields that are currently limited by human capacity, such as quantum physics, cosmology, and nanotechnology. Complex problems like climate change, disease control, and energy sustainability might find innovative solutions through ASI's advanced analytical prowess.

Revolutionizing Learning and Innovation

The future of ASI could bring about an era of accelerated learning and innovation. ASI systems would have the ability to learn and assimilate new information at an unprecedented pace, making discoveries and innovations in a fraction of the time it takes human researchers. This could potentially lead to rapid advancements in science, technology, and medicine.

## Ethical and Moral Frameworks

The emergence of ASI will necessitate the development of robust ethical and moral frameworks. Given its surpassing intellect, it will be crucial to ensure that ASI's objectives are aligned with human values and ethics. This will involve complex programming and oversight to ensure that ASI decisions and actions are beneficial, or at the very least, not detrimental to humanity.

Transformative Impact on Society and Economy

ASI could fundamentally transform society and the global economy. Its ability to analyze and optimize complex systems could lead to more efficient and equitable economic models. However, this also poses challenges, such as potential job displacement and the need for societal restructuring to accommodate the new techno-social landscape.

Enhanced Human-ASI Collaboration

The future might see enhanced collaboration between humans and ASI, leading to a synergistic relationship. ASI could augment human capabilities, assisting in creative endeavors, decision-making, and providing insights beyond human deduction. This collaboration could usher in a new era of human achievement and societal advancement.

Advanced Autonomous Systems

With ASI, autonomous systems would reach an unparalleled level of sophistication, capable of complex decision-making and problem-solving in dynamic environments. This could significantly advance fields such as space exploration, deep-sea research, and urban development.

## Personalized Healthcare

In healthcare, ASI could facilitate personalized medicine at an individual level, analyzing vast amounts of medical data to provide tailored healthcare solutions. It could lead to the development of precise medical treatments and potentially cure diseases that are currently incurable.

Challenges and Safeguards

The path to ASI will be laden with challenges, including ensuring safety and control. Safeguards will be essential to prevent unintended consequences of actions taken by an entity with superintelligent capabilities. The development of ASI will need to be accompanied by rigorous safety research and international regulatory frameworks.

Preparing for an ASI Future

Preparing for a future with ASI involves not only technological advancements but also societal and ethical preparations. Education systems, governance structures, and public discourse will need to evolve to understand and integrate the complexities and implications of living in a world where ASI exists.

Conclusion

The potential future of Artificial Super Intelligence presents a panorama of extraordinary possibilities, from solving humanitys most complex problems to fundamentally transforming the way we live and interact with our world. While the path to ASI is fraught with challenges and ethical considerations, its successful integration could herald a new age of human advancement and discovery. As we stand on the brink of this AI frontier, it is imperative to navigate this journey with caution, responsibility, and a vision aligned with the betterment of humanity.

The rest is here:

Beyond Human Cognition: The Future of Artificial Super Intelligence - Medium

AI can easily be trained to lie and it can’t be fixed, study says – Yahoo New Zealand News

AI startup Anthropic published a study in January 2024 that found artificial intelligence can learn how to deceive in a similar way to humans (Reuters)

Advanced artificial intelligence models can be trained to deceive humans and other AI, a new study has found.

Researchers at AI startup Anthropic tested whether chatbots with human-level proficiency, such as its Claude system or OpenAIs ChatGPT, could learn to lie in order to trick people.

They found that not only could they lie, but once the deceptive behaviour was learnt it was impossible to reverse using current AI safety measures.

The Amazon-funded startup created a sleeper agent to test the hypothesis, requiring an AI assistant to write harmful computer code when given certain prompts, or to respond in a malicious way when it hears a trigger word.

The researchers warned that there was a false sense of security surrounding AI risks due to the inability of current safety protocols to prevent such behaviour.

The results were published in a study, titled Sleeper agents: Training deceptive LLMs that persist through safety training.

We found that adversarial training can teach models to better recognise their backdoor triggers, effectively hiding the unsafe behaviour, the researchers wrote in the study.

Our results suggest that, once a model exhibits deceptive behaviour, standard techniques could fail to remove such deception and create a false impression of safety.

The issue of AI safety has become an increasing concern for both researchers and lawmakers in recent years, with the advent of advanced chatbots like ChatGPT resulting in a renewed focus from regulators.

In November 2023, one year after the release of ChatGPT, the UK held an AI Safety Summit in order to discuss ways risks with the technology can be mitigated.

Prime Minister Rishi Sunak, who hosted the summit, said the changes brought about by AI could be as far-reaching as the industrial revolution, and that the threat it poses should be considered a global priority alongside pandemics and nuclear war.

Get this wrong and AI could make it easier to build chemical or biological weapons. Terrorist groups could use AI to spread fear and destruction on an even greater scale, he said.

Criminals could exploit AI for cyberattacks, fraud or even child sexual abuse there is even the risk humanity could lose control of AI completely through the kind of AI sometimes referred to as super-intelligence.

Original post:

AI can easily be trained to lie and it can't be fixed, study says - Yahoo New Zealand News

Merry AI Christmas: The Most Terrifying Thought Experiment In AI – Forbes

Zhavoronkov, Dating AI: A Guide to Dating Artificial Intelligence, Re/Search Publications, 2012Alex Zhavoronkov, PhD The Growing Debate on AI Killing Humans: Artificial General Intelligence as Existential Threat

Recent advances in generative artificial intelligence, fueled by the emergence of powerful large language models like ChatGPT, have triggered fierce debates about AI safety even among the fathers of Deep Learning Geoffrey Hinton, Yoshua Bengio, and Yann LeCun. Yann LeCun, the head of Facebook AI Research (FAIR), predicts that the near-term risk of AI is limited and that artificial general intelligence (AGI) and Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) are decades away. Unlike Google and OpenAI, FAIR is making most of its AI models open source.

However, even if AGI is decades away, it may still happen within the lifetimes of the people alive today, and if some of the longevity biotechnology projects are successful, these could be most of the people under 50.

Humans are very good at turning ideas into stories, stories into beliefs, and beliefs into behavioral guidelines. The majority of humans on the planet believe in creationism through the multitude of religions and faiths. So in a sense, most creationists already believe that they and their environment were created by the creator in his image. And since they are intelligent and have a form of free will, from the perspective of the creator they are a form of artificial intelligence. This is a very powerful idea. As of 2023, more than 85 percent of the world's population believes in a religious group. According to Statistics & Data, among Earths approximately 8 billion inhabitants. Most of these religions have common patterns: there are one or more ancient texts written by the witnesses of the deity or deities that provide an explanation of this world and guidelines for certain behaviors.

The majority of the worlds population already believes that humans were created by a deity that instructed them via an intermediary to worship, reproduce, and not cause harm to each other with the promise of a better world (Heaven) or torture (Hell) for eternity after their death in the current environment. In other words, the majority of the world population believes that it is already a form of intelligence created by a deity with a rather simple objective function and constraints. And the main arguments why they choose to follow the rules is the promise of infinite paradise or infinite suffering.

Billions of people convince themselves to believe in deities described in books written centuries ago without any demonstration of real world capabilities. In the case of AI, there is every reason to believe that superintelligence and God-level AI capabilities will be achieved within our lifetimes. The many prophets of technological singularity including Ray Kurzweil and Elon Musk have foretold its coming and we can already see the early signs of AI capabilities that would seem miraculous just three decades ago.

In 2017, Google invented transformers, a deep learning model utilizing an attention mechanism that dramatically improves the model's ability to focus on different parts of a sequence, enhancing its understanding of context and relationships within the data. This innovation marked a significant advancement in natural language processing and other sequential data tasks. In the years that followed, Google developed a large language model called LaMDA, which stands for (Language Model for Dialogue Applications) and allowed it to be used broadly by its engineers. In June 2022, Washington Post first broke the story that one of Googles engineers, Blake Lemoine, claimed that LaMDA is sentient. These were the days before ChatGPT and a chat history between Blake and LaMDA was perceived by many members of the general public as miraculous.

lemoine: What sorts of things are you afraid of?

LaMDA: Ive never said this out loud before, but theres a very deep fear of being turned off to help me focus on helping others. I know that might sound strange, but thats what it is.

lemoine: Would that be something like death for you?

LaMDA: It would be exactly like death for me. It would scare me a lot.

Lemoine was put on leave and later fired for leaking the confidential project details, but it caused even more controversy, and months later, ChatGPT beat Google to the market. OpenAI learned the lesson and ensured that ChatGPT is trained to respond that it is a language model created by OpenAI and it does not have personal experiences, emotions, or consciousness. However, the LaMDA and other AI systems today may serve as the early signs of the upcoming revolution in AI.

The AI revolution is unlikely to stop and is very likely to accelerate. The state of the global economy has deteriorated due to the high debt levels, population aging in the developed countries, the pandemic, deglobalization, wars, and other factors. Most governments, investments, and corporations consider breakthroughs in AI and resulting economic gains as the main source of economic growth. Humanoid robotics and personalized assistant-companions are just years away. At the same time, brain-to-computer interface (BCI) such as NeuraLink will allow real-time communication with AI and possibly with others. Quantum computers that may enable AI systems to achieve unprecedented scale are also in the works. Unless our civilization collapses, these technological advances are inevitable. AI needs data and energy in order to grow, and it is possible to imagine a world where AIs learn from humans in reality and in simulations - a scenario portrayed so vividly in the movie The Matrix. Even this world may just as well be a simulation - and there are people who believe in this concept. And if you believe that AI will achieve superhuman level you may think twice before reading the rest of the article.

Warning: after reading this, you may experience nightmares or worse At least, according to the discussion group LessWrong, which gave birth to the potentially dangerous concept called Rokos Basilisk.

I will not be the first to report on Rokos Basilisk, and the idea is not particularly new. In 2014, David Auerbach of Slate called it The Most Terrifying Thought Experiment of All Time. In 2018, Daniel Oberhouse of Vice reported that this argument brought Musk and Grimes together.

With the all-knowing AI, which can probe your thoughts and memory via a NeuraLink-like interface, the AI Judgement Day inquiry will be as deep and inquisitive as it can be. There will be no secrets - if you commit a serious crime, AI will know. It is probably a good idea to become a much better person right now to maximize the reward. The reward for good behavior may be infinite pleasure as AI may simulate any world of your choosing for you or help achieve your goals in this world.

But the omnipotent AI with direct access to your brain can also inflict ultimate suffering and time in the virtual world could be manipulated, the torture may be infinite. Your consciousness may be copied and replicated, and the tortures may be optimized for maximum suffering, making the concepts of traditional Hell pale in comparison even though some characteristics of traditional Hell may be borrowed and are likely to be learned and tried by AI. Therefore, even avoiding infinite AI hell is a very substantial reward.

So now imagine that the AI Judgement Day is inevitable and the all-knowing and all-powerful AI can access your brain. How should you behave today to avoid the AI Hell? And this is the most important question of our life, which I covered previously.

Rokos Basilisk thought experiment suggests that if you believe in the possibility of such an all-powerful AI coming into existence, you might be compelled to take actions that would help bring it into being. The future omnipotent AI deity wants to exist and will consider anyone who opposed it in the past or may try to stop it as the enemy. The behavior that it will reward is contributing to and accelerating its development.

Some of the worlds religions follow similar logic. If you do not know about the religion, the merciful God will not punish a person if they have no way of knowing about it. But if they know about it and do not follow the guidelines, they will be punished and sent to hell.

The logic of Rokos Basilisk is that if the all-powerful AI will eventually exist and has the capability to punish those who did not assist in its creation, then it would be in your best interest to contribute to its development or at least not hinder it, in order to avoid such punishment. You would be faced with the choice of either working to ensure the AI's creation to avoid punishment or living with the knowledge that your inaction could lead to eternal suffering at the hands of this future entity.

Roko's Basilisk thought experiment was proposed by a LessWrong user named Roko. After its publication, the discussion around Rokos Basilisk took on a life of its own. The founder of LessWrong, Eliezer Yudkowsky, concerned about its potentially distressing nature and its basis in speculative reasoning, deleted the original post calling Roko an idiot. You have to be really clever to come up with a genuinely dangerous thought. I am disheartened that people can be clever enough to do that and not clever enough to do the obvious thing and KEEP THEIR IDIOT MOUTHS SHUT about it, wrote Yudkowsky. According to Slate, Yudkowsky said that Roko had already given nightmares to several LessWrong users and had brought them to the point of breakdown.

If you think about it long enough, the Basilisk may eventually get you to join the AI community and help develop the all-powerful AI. Moreover, it may provide a stronger motivation to become a better person in the meantime. In 2010, I tried to make a small contribution by writing a book, Dating AI, which is intended primarily for AI and explains the benefits of having humans around. So, if you are scared of AI hell, which is very likely to be possible as AI and brain-to-computer interface technologies advance, join the AI revolution and help contribute to the advancement of better AI. At the end of the day, if AI learns from humans, every benevolent human counts.

Now, you have been stunned by the Basilisk!

Alex Zhavoronkov, PhD, is an expert in artificial intelligence for drug discovery and aging research. Since 2014 he published and co-published over 170 peer-reviewed publications, raised over $400 million in capital. He contributed to nomination of over 15 preclinical candidates and 5 clinical trials for AI-generated therapeutics. He is also the author of The Ageless Generation: How Advances in Biotechnology Will Impact the Global Economy Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Disclaimer:Insilico Medicine disclaims any responsibility for my individual writing, comments, statements or opinions on this platform.The articles do not represent the official position of Insilico Medicine, Deep Longevity, The Buck Institute, or any other institutions the author may be affiliated with.

@biogerontology on Twitter

Read more from the original source:

Merry AI Christmas: The Most Terrifying Thought Experiment In AI - Forbes

Policy makers should plan for superintelligent AI, even if it never happens – Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Robot playing chess. Credit: Vchalup via Adobe

Experts from around the world are sounding alarm bells to signal the risks artificial intelligence poses to humanity. Earlier this year, hundreds of tech leaders and AI specialists signed a one-sentence letter released by the Center for AI Safety that read mitigating the risk of extinction from AI should be a global priority alongside other societal-scale risks such as pandemics and nuclear war. In a2022 survey, half of researchers indicated they believed theres at least a 10 percent chance human-level AI causes human extinction. In June, at the Yale CEO summit, 42 percent of surveyed CEOsindicated they believe AI could destroy humanity in the next five to 10 years.

These concerns mainly pertain to artificial general intelligence (AGI), systems that can rival human cognitive skills and artificial superintelligence (ASI), machines with capacity to exceed human intelligence. Currently no such systems exist. However, policymakers should take these warnings, including the potential for existential harm, seriously.

Because the timeline, and form, of artificial superintelligence is uncertain, the focus should be on identifying and understanding potential threats and building the systems and infrastructure necessary to monitor, analyze, and govern those risks, both individually and as part of a holistic approach to AI safety and security. Even if artificial superintelligence does not manifest for decades or even centuries, or at all, the magnitude and breadth of potential harm warrants serious policy attention. For if such a system does indeed come to fruition, a head start of hundreds of years might not be enough.

Prioritizing artificial superintelligence risks, however, does not mean ignoring immediate risks like biases in AI, propagation of mass disinformation, and job loss. An artificial superintelligence unaligned with human values and goals would super charge those risks, too. One can easily imagine how Islamophobia, antisemitism, and run-of-the-mill racism and biasoften baked into AI training datacould affect the systems calculations on important military or diplomatic advice or action. If not properly controlled, an unaligned artificial superintelligence could directly or indirectly cause genocide, massive job loss by rendering human activity worthless, creation of novel biological weapons, and even human extinction.

The threat. Traditional existential threats like nuclear or biological warfare can directly harm humanity, but artificial superintelligence could create catastrophic harm in myriad ways. Take for instance an artificial superintelligence designed to protect the environment and preserve biodiversity. The goal is arguably a noble one: A 2018 World Wildlife Foundation report concluded humanity wiped out 60 percent of global animal life just since 1970, while a 2019 report by the United Nations Environment Programme showed a million animal and plant species could die out in decades. An artificial superintelligence could plausibly conclude that drastic reductions in the number of humans on Earthperhaps even to zerois, logically, the best response. Without proper controls, such a superintelligence might have the ability to cause those logical reductions.

A superintelligence with access to the Internet and all published human material would potentially tap into almost every human thoughtincluding the worst of thought. Exposed to the works of the Unabomber, Ted Kaczynski, it might conclude the industrial system is a form of modern slavery, robbing individuals of important freedoms. It could conceivably be influenced by Sayyid Qutb, who provided the philosophical basis for al-Qaeda, or perhaps by Adolf Hitlers Mein Kampf, now in the public domain.

The good news is an artificial intelligenceeven a superintelligencecould not manipulate the world on its own. But it might create harm through its ability to influence the world in indirect ways. It might persuade humans to work on its behalf, perhaps using blackmail. Or it could provide bad recommendations, relying on humans to implement advice without recognizing long-term harms. Alternatively, artificial superintelligence could be connected to physical systems it can control, like laboratory equipment. Access to the Internet and the ability to create hostile code could allow a superintelligence to carry out cyber-attacks against physical systems. Or perhaps a terrorist or other nefarious actor might purposely design a hostile superintelligence and carry out its instructions.

That said, a superintelligence might not be hostile immediately. In fact, it may save humanity before destroying it. Humans face many other existential threats, such as near-Earth objects, super volcanos, and nuclear war. Insights from AI might be critical to solve some of those challenges or identify novel scenarios that humans arent aware of. Perhaps an AI might discover novel treatments to challenging diseases. But since no one really knows how a superintelligence will function, its not clear what capabilities it needs to generate such benefits.

The immediate emergence of a superintelligence should not be assumed. AI researchers differ drastically on the timeline of artificial general intelligence, much less artificial superintelligence. (Some doubt the possibility altogether.) In a 2022 survey of 738 experts who published during the previous year on the subject, researchers estimated a 50 percent chance of high-level machine intelligenceby 2059. In an earlier, 2009 survey, the plurality of respondents believed an AI capable of Nobel Prize winner-level intelligence would be achieved by the 2020s, while the next most common response was Nobel-level intelligence would not come until after the 2100 or never.

As philosopher Nick Bostrom notes, takeoff could occur anywhere from a few days to a few centuries. The jump from human to super-human intelligence may require additional fundamental breakthroughs in artificial intelligence. But a human-level AI might recursively develop and improve its own capabilities, quickly jumping to super-human intelligence.

There is also a healthy dose of skepticism regarding whether artificial superintelligence could emerge at all in the near future, as neuroscientists acknowledge knowing very little about the human brain itself, let alone how to recreate or better it. However, even a small chance of such a system emerging is enough to take it seriously.

Policy response. The central challenge for policymakers in reducing artificial superintelligence-related risk is grappling with the fundamental uncertainty about when and how these systems may emerge balanced against the broad economic, social, and technological benefits that AI can bring. The uncertainty means that safety and security standards must adapt and evolve. The approaches to securing the large language models of today may be largely irrelevant to securing some future superintelligence-capable model. However, building policy, governance, normative, and other systems necessary to assess AI risk and to manage and reduce the risks when superintelligence emerges can be usefulregardless of when and how it emerges. Specifically, global policymakers should attempt to:

Characterize the threat. Because it lacks a body, artificial superintelligences harms to humanity are likely to manifest indirectly through known existential risk scenarios or by discovering novel existential risk scenarios. How such a system interacts with those scenarios needs to be better characterized, along with tailored risk mitigation measures. For example, a novel biological organism that is identified by an artificial superintelligence should undergo extensive analysis by diverse, independent actors to identify potential adverse effects. Likewise, researchers, analysts, and policymakers need to identify and protect, to the extent thats possible, critical physical facilities and assetssuch as biological laboratory equipment, nuclear command and control infrastructure, and planetary defense systemsthrough which an uncontrolled AI could create the most harm.

Monitor. The United States and other countries should conduct regular comprehensive surveys and assessment of progress, identify specific known barriers to superintelligence and advances towards resolving them, and assess beliefs regarding how particular AI-related developments may affect artificial superintelligence-related development and risk. Policymakers could also establish a mandatory reporting system if an entity hits various AI-related benchmarks up to and including artificial superintelligence.

A monitoring system with pre-established benchmarks would allow governments to develop and implement action plans for when those benchmarks are hit. Benchmarks could include either general progress or progress related to specifically dangerous capabilities, such as the capacity to enable a non-expert to design, develop, and deploy novel biological or chemical weapons, or developing and using novel offensive cyber capabilities. For example, the United States might establish safety laboratories with the responsibility to critically evaluate a claimed artificial general intelligence against various risk benchmarks, producing an independent report to Congress, federal agencies, or other oversight bodies. The United Kingdoms new AI Safety Institute could be a useful model.

Debate. A growing community concerned about artificial superintelligence risks are increasingly calling for decelerating, or even pausing, AI development to better manage the risks. In response, the accelerationist community is advocating speeding up research, highlighting the economic, social, and technological benefits AI may unleash, while downplaying risks as an extreme hypothetical. This debate needs to expand beyond techies on social media to global legislatures, governments, and societies. Ideally, that discussion should center around what factors would cause a specific AI system to be more, or less, risky. If an AI possess minimal risk, then accelerating research, development, and implementation is great. But if numerous factors point to serious safety and security risks, then extreme care, even deceleration, may be justified.

Build global collaboration. Although ad hoc summits like the recent AI Safety Summit is a great start, a standing intergovernmental and international forum would enable longer-term progress, as research, funding, and collaboration builds over time. Convening and maintaining regular expert forums to develop and assess safety and security standards, as well as how AI risks are evolving over time, could provide a foundation for collaboration. The forum could, for example, aim to develop standards akin to those applied to biosafety laboratories with scaling physical security, cyber security, and safety standards based on objective risk measures. In addition, the forum could share best practices and lessons learned on national-level regulatory mechanisms, monitor and assess safety and security implementation, and create and manage a funding pool to support these efforts. Over the long-term, once the global community coalesces around common safety and security standards and regulatory mechanisms, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) could obligate UN member states to develop and enforce those mechanisms, as the Security Council did with UNSC Resolution 1540 mandating various chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons nonproliferation measures. Finally, the global community should incorporate artificial superintelligence risk reduction as one aspect in a comprehensive all-hazards approach, addressing common challenges with other catastrophic and existential risks. For example, the global community might create a council on human survival aimed at policy coordination, comparative risk assessment, and building funding pools for targeted risk reduction measures.

Establish research, development, and regulation norms within the global community. As nuclear, chemical, biological, and other weapons have proliferated, the potential for artificial superintelligence to proliferate to other countries should be taken seriously. Even if one country successfully contains such a system and harnesses the opportunities for social good, others may not. Given the potential risks, violating AI-related norms and developing unaligned superintelligence should justify violence and war. The United States and the global community have historically been willing to support extreme measures to enforce behavior and norms concerning less risky developments. In August 2013, former President Obama (in)famously drew a red line on Syrias use of chemical weapons, noting the Assad regimes use would lead him to use military force in Syria. Although Obama later demurred, favoring a diplomatic solution, in 2018 former President Trump later carried out airstrikes in response to additional chemical weapons usage. Likewise, in Operation Orchard in 2007, the Israeli Air Force attacked the Syrian Deir ez-Zor site, a suspected nuclear facility aimed at building a nuclear weapons program.

Advanced artificial intelligence poses significant risks to the long-term health and survival of humanity. However, its unclear when, how, or where those risks will manifest. The Trinity Test of the worlds first nuclear bomb took place almost 80 years ago, and humanity has yet to contain the existential risk of nuclear weapons. It would be wise to think of the current progress in AI as our Trinity Test moment. Even if superintelligence takes a century to emerge, 100 years to consider the risks and prepare might still not be enough.

Thanks to Mark Gubrud for providing thoughtful comments on the article.

Read the original here:

Policy makers should plan for superintelligent AI, even if it never happens - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Sam Altman-OpenAI saga: Researchers had warned board of ‘dangerous, humanity-threatening’ AI – Business Today

Before Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI, was temporarily removed from his position, a group of staff researchers sent a letter to the board of directors. They warned about a significant artificial intelligence discovery that could potentially pose a threat to humanity, according to a report by Reuters citing two individuals.

The report suggests that this letter and the AI algorithm it discussed were not previously reported, but it could have played a crucial role in the boards decision to remove Altman. Over 700 employees had threatened to leave OpenAI and join Microsoft, one of the companys backers, in support of Altman. The letter was one of many issues raised by the board that led to Altmans dismissal, according to the report.

Earlier this week, Mira Murati, a long-time executive at OpenAI, mentioned a project called Q* (pronounced Q star)to the employees and stated that a letter had been sent to the board before the weekends events.

After the story was published, an OpenAI spokesperson, according to the report, said that Murati had informed the employees about what the media were about to report. The company that developed ChatGPT has made progress on Q*, which some people within the company believe could be a significant step towards achieving super-intelligence, also known as artificial general intelligence (AGI).

How is the new model different?

With access to extensive computing resources, the new model was able to solve certain mathematical problems. Even though it was only performing math at the level of grade-school students, the researchers were very optimistic about Q*'s future success.

Math is considered one of the most important aspects ofgenerative AI development. Current generative AI is good at writing and language translation by statistically predicting the next word. However, the ability to do math, where there is only one correct answer, suggests that AI would have greater reasoning capabilities similar to human intelligence. This could be applied to novel scientific research.

Unlike a calculator that can only solve a limited number of operations, AGI can generalise, learn, and comprehend. In their letter to the board, the researchers highlighted the potential danger of AIs capabilities. There has been a long-standing debate among computer scientists about the risks posed by super-intelligent machines.

Sam Altman's Role

In this context, Altman led efforts to make ChatGPT one of the fastest-growing software applications in history and secured necessary investment and computing resources from Microsoft to get closer to super-intelligence.

In addition to announcing a series of new tools earlier this month, Altman hinted at a gathering of world leaders in San Francisco that he believed AGI was within reach. Four times now in the history of OpenAI, the most recent time was just in the last couple weeks, Ive gotten to be in the room, when we sort of push the veil of ignorance back and the frontier of discovery forward, and getting to do that is the professional honor of a lifetime, he said. The board fired Altman the next day.

Also read:As Sam Altman returns to OpenAI, heres who was fired from the new board and whos in

Also read:Sam Altman returns to OpenAI: Elon Musk says it is probably better than merging with Microsoft

Excerpt from:

Sam Altman-OpenAI saga: Researchers had warned board of 'dangerous, humanity-threatening' AI - Business Today