Category Archives: Encryption
Senate legislation to protect children from sexual exploitation online is being dragged into a larger fight over privacy and encryption.
The bill in question, the EARN IT Act, which has bipartisan support, would create a government-backed commission to develop "best practices" for dealing with rampant child sexual abuse material online.
If tech companies do not meet the best practices adopted by Congress, they would be stripped of their legal liability shield, laid out in Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, in such cases.
But critics worry that the bill is simply a vehicle to block the tech industry's efforts to implement end-to-end encryption, a feature which makes it impossible for companies or government to access private communications between devices.
They worry the legislation could give government a backdoor to encrypted devices. That concern has been amplified by Attorney General William BarrWilliam Pelham BarrBill to protect children online ensnared in encryption fight Trump suggests he may veto surveillance bill The Hill's Morning Report - Trump takes unexpected step to stem coronavirus MORE, vocal opponent of encryption, who would head the best practices commission under the legislation.
Sen. Ron WydenRonald (Ron) Lee WydenBill to protect children online ensnared in encryption fight Democratic Senators introduce bill to provide free coronavirus testing Vermont attorney general sues controversial facial recognition company over privacy violations MORE (D-Ore.) has slammed the bill as a "Trojan horse to give Attorney General Barr and Donald TrumpDonald John TrumpThe Hill's Morning Report Coronavirus tests a partisan Washington The Memo: Virus crisis upends political world Bill to protect children online ensnared in encryption fight MORE the power to control online speech and require government access to every aspect of Americans' lives."
But supporters of the bill are pushing back.
Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lindsey GrahamLindsey Olin GrahamThe Hill's Morning Report Coronavirus tests a partisan Washington Bill to protect children online ensnared in encryption fight Trudeau's wife tests positive for coronavirus MORE (R-S.C.), a bill co-sponsor, said during a hearing before his committee on Wednesday that the legislation is not about the encryption debate, but the best business practices.
This bill is not about ending encryption, added Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.), another co-sponsor, Wednesday. And it is also Im going to be very blunt here not about the current attorney general, William Barr.
Blumenthal pointed out that the commission would have 19 members and that 14 votes would be needed to approve a best practice. Among those 19 members would be the attorney general, but also the Department of Homeland Security secretary and the chair of the Federal Trade Commission. The other 16 members would be appointed by the Senate majority leader, Senate minority leader, Speaker of the House and the House minority leader.
That has failed to calm the worries of privacy advocates.
Kathleen Ruane, senior legislative counsel at the American Civil Liberties Union, told The Hill that although there are other members on the committee, Barr will have an outsize role. She pointed to language in the bill giving the attorney general final approval power before best practices are sent to Congress.
Blumenthal has said the attorney general can only reject proposed best practices on the commission, as opposed to pushing any through unilaterally.
Regardless of Barr's role and powers,experts say encryption will come up as the commission debates best practices.
You have law enforcement representatives [on the committee] and this is a huge issue among the law enforcement community ... so it's very likely they'll bring it up, said Alan Rozenshtein, associate professor of law at the University of Minnesota and former attorney adviser for the Department of Justice. And then you have victim advocates and to the extent that they believe that encryption is part of the problem or needs to be addressed as part of the problem, they're going to bring it up as well."
"I don't really see a realistic situation in which this does not implicate encryption," he added.
Encryption is not explicitly mentioned in the bill, but that also means nothing stops them from making best practices related to it, said Elizabeth Banker, the deputy general counsel of the Internet Association, a trade association that represents many online companies.
Critics also have broader privacy concerns over the legislation outside of the encryption debate. Ruane said other best practices could pose threats to communication privacy.
One compromise that has been floated is to make it explicit in the legislation that the commission will not make any recommendations about encryption. But Graham has rebuffed that idea.
I'm not going to pre-determine what the right answers are, Graham told reporters Wednesday. Let the commission work.
Other lawmakers have also downplayed any threat to weakening encryption.
I can tell you right now I will not support something that compromises the integrity of encryption for users, because I think that that's hugely significant, Sen. Josh HawleyJoshua (Josh) David HawleyBill to protect children online ensnared in encryption fight Hillicon Valley: Facebook, Twitter dismantle Russian interference campaign targeting African Americans | YouTube to allow ads on coronavirus videos | Trump signs law banning federal funds for Huawei equipment Top general: Iran-backed militia in Iraq 'only group known' to have carried out type of attack that killed two US troops MORE (R-Mo.), one of the 11 bill co-sponsors, told reporters Wednesday.
Hawley accused tech companies of bringing up the issue of encryption to derail the legislation, which will place more responsibility on them to prevent exploitation of children online.
What the tech companies will do is seize at any straw to try to argue that we just can't possibly revise Section 230, he told reporters. Let's not underestimate how rich they've gotten on Section 230.
Blumenthal said at the hearing that some big tech companies are using encryption as a subterfuge to oppose this bill.
There have been changes to the bill from an earlier version leaked in February. That version had only 15 members on the commission and required a lower threshold to approve best practices.
Asked about those changes, Blumenthal told reporters that legislators were listening for constructive suggestions as they drafted the bill.
As lawmakers move to finalize the bill, both sides are digging in.
I am not going to stand on the sidelines any longer, Graham said Wednesday, vowing to push the legislation forward.
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Bill to protect children online ensnared in encryption fight | TheHill - The Hill
A bipartisan group of 10 senators introduced legislation designed to combat online child pornography, but many privacy and cybersecurity advocates are vehemently opposed to the bill.
Many groups focused on privacy and cybersecurity fear the Eliminating Abusive and Rampant Neglect of Interactive Technologies Act ( EARN IT) will lead to new restrictions on the use of encryption on websites and web-based messaging services.
The bill gives the attorney general broad authority to craft new standards for websites and online services to protect against child pornography. Attorney General William Barr has often called encryption a valuable tool for child pornographers and other criminals, and privacy and security groups fear he will quickly move to require encryption back doors in online services.
The bill undermines the privacy of every single American, stifles our ability to communicate freely online, and may jeopardize the very prosecutions it seeks to enable, the American Civil Liberties Union said in a March 9 letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee. Encrypted communications are vital to everyones privacy.
Sens. Lindsey Graham and Richard Blumenthal released a discussion draft of the bill earlier this year, and on March 5, they introduced the bipartisan EARN IT Act. At the same time, Google, Facebook, and four other online companies announced they were adopting new voluntary guidelines to fight child pornography.
The bill would create a new commission that develops best practices for preventing online child pornography, and it would enforce these standards by removing lawsuit protections from websites and online services that fail to implement them.
The EARN IT Act would require online services to certify the best practices developed by the commission. If not, they risk expanded legal liability under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act of 1996, which protects sites from lawsuits for user-generated content accused of defamation, breach of contract, and other violations.
Section 230 protects video-hosting sites like YouTube and social media providers such as Facebook and Twitter, but also any website that allows users to post comments, including many news sites.
Sponsors of the bill argue that its needed to crack down on the tens of millions of photos and videos posted online depicting child abuse.
The EARN IT Act will ensure tech companies are using best business practices to prevent child exploitation online, Graham said in a statement. For the first time, [websites] will have to earn blanket liability protection when it comes to protecting minors. Our goal is to do this in a balanced way that doesnt overly inhibit innovation, but forcibly deals with child exploitation.
After senators introduced the EARN IT Act, a trickle of criticism turned into a flood, however. The bill could turn voluntary reporting of child pornography by websites into a legal procedure that requires newly deputized websites to get court-ordered warrants before turning in users, the ACLU said in its March 9 letter.
Any evidence of [child abuse] obtained through investigations conducted to comply with the EARN IT Act, therefore, could be inadmissible in court if obtained without a warrant or in any other manner that does not comply with the Fourth Amendment, the ACLU wrote.
Critics also noted the value of encryption to domestic violence victims, to dissidents and journalists, to members of Congress, and to members of the U.S. military.
The 82nd Airborne Army division, deployed in the Middle East, uses encrypted applications Signal and Wickr to avoid surveillance by the Iranian government, the ACLU said. Encrypted services protect all of us from the prying eyes of hostile foreign governments and numerous other bad actors.
Another 25 groups, including FreedomWorks, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the Wikimedia Foundation, also wrote a letter to Graham and Blumenthal, voicing strong opposition to the bill. The legislation raises First Amendment and Fourth Amendment concerns, and it could push criminals to underground communications services.
Eliminating or undermining encryption on some online platforms will make law enforcements job harder by simply pushing criminals to other communications options, the groups wrote. In other words, EARN IT would harm ordinary users who rely on encrypted messaging, but would not stop bad actors.
Senators Pretend That EARN IT Act Wouldn’t Be Used To Undermine Encryption; They’re Wrong – Techdirt
from the plausible-deniability dept
On Wednesday, the Senate held a hearing about the EARN IT Act, the bill that is designed to undermine the internet and encryption in one single move -- all in the name of "protecting the children" (something that it simply will not do). Pretty much the entire thing was infuriating, but I wanted to focus on one key aspect. Senators supporting the bill, including sponsor Richard Blumenthal -- who has been attacking the internet since well before he was in the Senate and was just the Attorney General of Connecticut -- kept trying to insist the bill had nothing to do with encryption and wouldn't be used to undermine encryption. In response to a letter from Facebook, Blumenthal kept insisting that the bill is not about encryption, and also insisting (incorrectly) that if the internet companies just nerded harder, they could keep encryption while still giving law enforcement access.
This bill says nothing about encryption, Sen. Richard Blumenthal..., said at a hearing Wednesday to discuss the legislation...
Strong law enforcement is compatible with strong encryption, Blumenthal said. I believe it, Big Tech knows it and either is Facebook is lying and I think theyre telling us the truth when they say that law enforcement is consistent with strong encryption or Big Tech is using encryption as a subterfuge to oppose this bill.
No, the only one engaged in lying or subterfuge here is Blumenthal (alternatively, he's so fucking ignorant that he should resign). "Strong" encryption is end-to-end encryption. Once you create a backdoor that lets law enforcement in, you've broken the encryption and it's no longer stronger. Even worse, it's very, very weak, and it puts everyone (even Senator Blumenthal and all his constituents) at risk. If you want to understand how this bill is very much about killing encryption, maybe listen to cryptographer Matthew Green explain it to you (he's not working for "Big Tech," Senator):
EARN IT works by revoking a type of liability called Section 230 that makes it possible for providers to operate on the Internet, by preventing the provider for being held responsible for what their customers do on a platform like Facebook. The new bill would make it financially impossible for providers like WhatsApp and Apple to operate services unless they conduct best practices for scanning their systems for CSAM.
Since there are no best practices in existence, and the techniques for doing this while preserving privacy are completely unknown, the bill creates a government-appointed committee that will tell technology providers what technology they have to use. The specific nature of the committee is byzantine and described within the bill itself. Needless to say, the makeup of the committee, which can include as few as zero data security experts, ensures that end-to-end encryption will almost certainly not be considered a best practice.
So in short: this bill is a backdoor way to allow the government to ban encryption on commercial services. And even more beautifully: it doesnt come out and actually ban the use of encryption, it just makes encryption commercially infeasible for major providers to deploy, ensuring that theyll go bankrupt if they try to disobey this committees recommendations.
Its the kind of bill youd come up with if you knew the thing you wanted to do was unconstitutional and highly unpopular, and you basically didnt care.
Or listen to Stanford's Riana Pfefferkorn explain how the bill's real target is encryption. As she explains, the authors of the bill (including Blumenthal) had ample opportunity to put in language that would make it clear that it does not target encryption. They chose not to.
As for the "subterfuge" Blumenthal calls out, the only real "subterfuge" here is by Blumenthal and Graham in crafting this bill with the help of the DOJ. Remember, just the day before the DOJ flat out said that 230 should be conditioned on letting law enforcement into any encrypted communications. So if Blumenthal really means that this bill won't impact encryption he should write it into the fucking bill. Because as it's structured right now, in order to keep 230 protections, internet companies will have to follow a set of "best practices" put together by a panel headed by the Attorney General who has said multiple times that he doesn't believe real encryption should be allowed on these services.
So if Blumenthal wants us to believe that his bill won't undermine encryption, he should address it explicitly, rather than lying about it in a Senate hearing, while simultaneously claiming that Facebook (and every other company) can do the impossible in giving law enforcement backdoor access while keeping encrypted data secure.
Filed Under: earn it, earn it act, encryption, intermediary liability, richard blumenthal, section 230
Why it matters: Regardless of the security and privacy measures we take on our devices, the content reaching us through their screens is ultimately susceptible to shoulder surfing and is often the source of amusement for overly inquisitive peers. Although third-party and in-built privacy screens have tried to address the problem and succeeded to some extent, Apple seems to be developing a solution that visually encrypts the display itself to make it impossible for unwanted observers to figure out the actual screen content.
Shoulder surfing remains a common practice among folk who have little regard for user privacy and often engage in this unethical activity, either for personal amusement or to social engineer their way to someone's sensitive information.
There have been attempts to curb this phenomenon with products like HP's Sure View display technology built into some of its laptops and third-party privacy filters for several form-factor devices. Apple users, however, might not have to worry long about this problem as the company recently filed for a patent that tracks the user's gaze as they operate the device and visually encrypts content to protect it from unwanted observers.
PhoneArena reports that Apple's 'gaze-dependent display encryption' technology could appear in multiple Apple devices in the future, including iPhones, iPads, monitors, the Apple Watch - basically anything with a display and other hardware required for the tech to function.
Using the camera to identify and track the user's gaze, along with special processing circuitry, the device's screen can generate visually encrypted frames when an onlooker is detected. These frames are made up of two regions: one that includes unmodified content for the intended user, based on their gaze and proximity from the camera, and a second obscured region that shows manipulated content through text scrambling, color altering, and image warping techniques.
The area within these circles represents unmodified information currently under user view
The patent also suggests that content manipulation will take place dynamically as "display content is not to be visually encrypted" when an onlooker's gaze is away from the display. When they do take a peek (intentionally or otherwise), the processing circuitry will begin generating visually encrypted frames, seemingly unnoticeable to the user.
The whole idea potentially makes sure that information reaches its desired user safely, much like the Compubody Sock from several years ago that set out to achieve the same objective, albeit in a much simpler, low-tech fashion.
The Compubody Sock was certainly effective but risked you getting more attention than usual
It remains to be seen if Apple implements this technology in its future products or simply decides to add this patent to its ever-growing pile of unused ones. The company's Face ID tech could eventually evolve to support this feature, further improving the user privacy of its devices; however, the processing and financial costs associated with this technology are likely going to make for even more expensive Apple products in the future.
Senators dispute industry claims that a bill targeting tech’s legal shield would prohibit encryption – CNBC
Sen. Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) announces a bipartisan agreement on Turkey sanctions during a news conference on Capitol Hill in Washington, October 17, 2019.
Erin Scott | Reuters
Senators disputed the tech industry's claims that a bipartisan bill targeting tech's long-standing legal shield would prohibit encryption by necessity.
"This bill says nothing about encryption," Sen. Richard Blumenthal, D-Conn., said at a hearing Wednesday to discuss the legislation. Blumenthal introduced the EARN IT Act last week with Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., ranking member Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif., and Sen. Josh Hawley, R-Mo.
As the name suggests, the bill aims to make tech platforms "earn" a the legal immunity they've long enjoyed for third-party content posted to their services under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act. If enacted, online platforms would no longer be automatically protected, but would be able to win back immunity by certifying compliance with a set of best practices for detecting and reporting child sexual exploitation materials to law enforcement.
Industry groups slammed the legislation when it was announced, warning the bill "would erodeboth security andtrustby potentially forbidding the use of end-to-end encryption in order to comply with the law," as Information Technology Industry Council President and CEO Jason Oxman put it in a statement. The group represents members including Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft and Twitter.
"Weakeningencryption andthe security of technology products, including through the EARN IT Act, does nothing to advanceonline safety," Oxman said.
While the bill does not explicitly address encryption, ITI argued it would allow the Department of Justice to require "back doors" to encrypted products, which scramble messages so that they are not readable to anyone outside of the sender and recipient. Tech companies like Apple have previously told government officials that creating such an entry point or key would weaken privacy standards for all users.
The DOJ has recently stepped up its critique of tech companies implementing encryption, including Facebook, which has announced plans to integrate and encrypt its three messaging services, Messenger, Instagram and WhatsApp. Attorney General William Barr previously said he feared that encryption of the apps would greatly hurt law enforcement's ability to detect instances of child sexual exploitation given Facebook comprises the vast majority of reports to the U.S. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC).
The Department also recently hosted experts to discuss Section 230 where Attorney General William Barr said tech's scale and power raises "valid questions" about whether the industry still needs the immunity.
Wednesday's hearing demonstrated that broad support exists in Congress for revising Section 230 alongside support for encryption.
"End-to-end encryption must be able to exist with robust law enforcement and I'm not going to support anything that does not protect the integrity of encryption for users, I can promise you that," said Hawley.
Blumenthal referenced a letter Facebook sent in response to questions from a group of Senators saying it is "committed to designing strong prevention, detection, and reporting systems to ensure that private and secure messaging services provide users with industry-leading privacy and security while safeguarding them and others from online abuse."
Blumenthal said the response showed encryption and enforcement could be compatible.
"Strong law enforcement is compatible with strong encryption," Blumenthal said. "I believe it, Big Tech knows it and either is Facebook is lying and I think they're telling us the truth when they say that law enforcement is consistent with strong encryption or Big Tech is using encryption as a subterfuge to oppose this bill."
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WATCH: Why the U.S. government is questioning your online privacy
A vulnerability in Broadcom and Cypress WiFi chips makes it possible for attackers on your local WiFi network to decrypt your WPA2 encrypted internet traffic. The vuln, known as the Krk (kr00k) vulnerability, has the designation CVE-2019-15126, ESET, the discoverer of the kr00k vulnerability, estimated that over a billion devices were affected. Apple products such as iPhone, iPad, and Macs were all affected; however, Apple has since patched the issue for iOS and MacOS so make sure that you are up to date on your updates. Even with quick action to correct the vulnerability by affected parties, there will still be millions of devices that wont be patched and will remain vulnerable. What Krk really does is remind us as internet users why properly implemented encryption is important.
Apple described the impact of the kr00k vulnerability as such when they patched this vulnerability in October 2019:
An attacker in Wi-Fi range may be able to view a small amount of network traffic.
The Broadcom and Cypress WiFi chips have a built in feature that resets the encryption key to all zeroes in the event of a connection break between the access point and the target device. The thing is, some WPA2 encrypted packets from the target device would still continue to be sent during that time and an attacker could intercept and decrypt those by using an all-zeroes encryption key. Since the disconnection can be triggered at will by the attacker, this attack can be extremely targeted to decrypt a WiFi users internet activity at will.
While the attacker might not be able to decrypt HTTPS encrypted data and information that is sent to HTTPS sites that youre visiting like your banking website they still would be able to intercept domain name system (DNS) or server name indication (SNI) requests and know what websites youre visiting even if theyre otherwise secured through HTTPS.
While the CVE worked as intended and the main companies with affected chips were able to push out patches to fix the vuln, its still possible that there are unpatched devices out there for whatever reason. The researchers at ESET emphasized in their reporting:
Krk affects devices with Wi-Fi chips by Broadcom and Cypress that havent yet been patched. These are the most common Wi-Fi chips used in contemporary Wi-Fi capable devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, and IoT gadgets.
Its best to assume that WiFi encryption is incomplete and that WPA2 is not enough encryption to protect your internet traffic when youre on WiFi. Before kr00k, there was also the KRACK WPA2 WiFi vulnerability which affected even more devices. Even when youre on 4G networks, there are 4G vulnerabilities that allow decryption, tracking, spoofing, and spamming and some of them even remain unpatched. This isnt the first and it wont be the last vulnerability affecting WiFi encryption.
Caleb Chen is a digital currency and privacy advocate who believes we must #KeepOurNetFree, preferably through decentralization. Caleb holds a Master's in Digital Currency from the University of Nicosia as well as a Bachelor's from the University of Virginia. He feels that the world is moving towards a better tomorrow, bit by bit by Bitcoin.
A bipartisan pair of US senators today introduced long-rumored legislation known as the EARN IT Act. Meant to combat child sexual exploitation online, the bill threatens to erode established protections against holding tech companies responsible for what people do and say on their platforms. It also poses the most serious threat in years to strong end-to-end encryption.
As the final text of the bill circulated, the Department of Justice held a press conference about its own effort to curb online child predation: a set of 11 "voluntary principles" that a growing number of tech companiesincluding Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Roblox, Snap, and Twitterhave pledged to follow. Though the principles the companies are pledging to adopt don't specifically impact encryption themselves, the event had an explicit anti-encryption message. The cumulative effect of this morning's announcements could define the geography of the next crypto wars.
Child predators "communicate using virtually unbreakable encryption," US attorney general William Barr said during the press conference. "The department for one is prioritizing combatting child sexual exploitation and abuse in our prosecution efforts. And we are also addressing child exploitation in our efforts on retaining lawful access and in analyzing the impact of Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act on incentives for platforms to address these crimes."
EARN IT focuses specifically on Section 230, which has historically given tech companies freedom to expand with minimal liability for how people use their platforms. Under EARN IT, those companies wouldn't automatically have a liability exemption for activity and content related to child sexual exploitation. Instead, companies would have to "earn" the protection by showing that they are following recommendations for combatting child sexual exploitation laid out by a 16-person commission.
"This is a profoundly awful proposal on multiple levels."
Julian Sanchez, Cato Institute
The bill, written by South Carolina Republican senator Lindsey Graham and Connecticut Democrat Richard Blumenthal, would create a way for law enforcement officials, attorneys general, online child sexual exploitation survivors and advocates, constitutional law scholars, consumer protection and privacy specialists, cryptographers, and other tech experts to collectively decide what digital companies should do to identify and reduce child predation on their platformsand then require companies to actually do it. The safeguards the committee might recommend would likely include things like proactive, dynamic content scanning to identify abusive photos and videos, but also communication surveillance to watch for predators who could be forming relationships with potential victims and "grooming" them for exploitation.
Though it seems wholly focused on reducing child exploitation, the EARN IT Act has definite implications for encryption. If it became law, companies might not be able to earn their liability exemption while offering end-to-end encrypted services. This would put them in the position of either having to accept liability, undermine the protection of end-to-end encryption by adding a backdoor for law enforcement access, or avoid end-to-end encryption altogether.
Facebook has most prominently made the argument in recent months that it can adequately identify child predation threats without eliminating or undermining user data protections like end-to-end encryption. The safeguard only makes data readable on the sender's and receiver's devices, boxing companies out of accessing user data directly.
Law enforcement officials and members of Congress have countered, though, that tech companies can't do enough to stop child predation and distribution of illegal content on their platforms if they can't access their users' data.
"We share the EARN IT Act sponsors commitment to child safety and have made keeping children safe online a top priority by developing and deploying technology to thwart the sharing of child abuse material," Thomas Richards, a Facebook spokesperson, said in a statement. "Were concerned the EARN IT Act may be used to roll back encryption, which protects everyones safety from hackers and criminals, and may limit the ability of American companies to provide the private and secure services that people expect."
Encryption technology has allowed consumers to keep their data and communication private, but it has also allowed criminals to evade surveillance. Policymakers are once again considering whether law enforcement agencies need new tools to handle this technology, such as a backdoor or built-in access to encrypted data into their apps. Yet the federal government and law enforcement often already have the ability to access needed digital evidence, and reforms should not endanger the benefits of encryption technology that consumers and businesses enjoy, argues AAFs Director of Technology and Innovation Policy Jennifer Huddleston.
Law enforcement should have the resources to address concerns about illegal activity, including those conducted via encrypted technologies. In providing these tools, however, policies should not create greater risk that undermine security and civil liberties. Rather than creating a risky and expansive policy by requiring a backdoor, policymakers and law enforcement should seek to better use existing tools and to focus on the underlying problematic behavior.
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Big Boom in Encryption Key Management Software Market that is Significantly Growing with Top Key Players Netlib Security, Fortanix, Avery Oden, AWS -…
Encryption key management software is used to handle the administration, distribution, and storage of encryption keys. Proper management will ensure encryption keys, and therefore the encryption and decryption of their sensitive information, are only accessible for approved parties. Increasing implementation of enterprise mobility and IoT across industry verticals has led to a surge in demand for encryption software. The Encryption Key Management Software Market is expected to reach +17% CAGR during forecast period 2019-2027.
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Table of Contents
Global Encryption Key Management Software Market Research Report
Chapter 1 Encryption Key Management Software Market Overview
Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry
Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers
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Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis
Chapter 12 Global Market Forecast
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Email Encryption Market Rising Trends, Technology and Business Outlook 2020 to 2026 – Best Research Reports
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