Category Archives: Encryption

NetApp ONTAP Achieves Validation from NSA for Security and Encryption – Database Trends and Applications

NetApp, a global, cloud-led, data-centric software company, has announced that NetApp ONTAP, an enterprise storage and data management platform, has achieved Commercial Solutions for Classified (CSfC) validation for a data-at-rest (DAR) capability package. With this, organizations across the globe can benefit from NetApp ONTAPs security capabilities to protect customers information on-prem and in remote locations from foreign actors, ransomware attacks or other data loss threats they may face.

A cybersecurity program led by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA), CSfC is a key component of the organizations commercial cybersecurity strategy. CSfC validates commercial IT products that have met the highest level of strict encryption standards and rigorous security requirements for both hardware and software solutions. Recently, the NSA has recommended that federal agencies hosting secret or top-secret data utilize storage solutions that have been CSfC validated.

Companies are facing more threats to their data and ultimately their business than ever before. According to Accentures State of Cybersecurity Resilience 2021 report, there were on average 270 attacks per company in 2021, a 31% increase from 2020. Additionally, 81% of chief information security officer (CISO) respondents said that staying ahead of attackers is a constant battle and the cost is unsustainable.

According to NetApp, with this CSfC validation, organizations can expect NetApp ONTAP to:

NetApp has been in the data protection business for nearly 30 years and is a data storage and management supplier to federal government, delivering storage innovation and data solutions, including data encryption, both in-flight and at rest, compliance, and protection. The latest release of ONTAP enables enterprises to use machine learning to protect against cyber-attacks with integrated preemptive detection and accelerated data recovery.

Organizations today know that data security is paramount, whether they operate in the public or private sector, said Michelle Rudnicki, vice president, U.S. public sector. at NetApp. With NetApps world-class data security capabilities and this CSfC validation, government organizations as well as companies in highly regulated industries like financial services, healthcare, energy or any organization with valuable intellectual property can be reassured that their most sensitive data is secure with NetApp ONTAP.

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NetApp ONTAP Achieves Validation from NSA for Security and Encryption - Database Trends and Applications

Attack on the Red Cross, UK against end-to-end encryption and other cybersecurity developments – The Times Hub

We have collected the most important news from the world of cybersecurity for the week.

Bitdefender experts have discovered a new BHUNT malware aimed at stealing cryptocurrency wallet funds, passwords, and seed phrases.

The malware can also steal cookies and other confidential information stored in the cache of Chrome and Firefox browsers.

Bitdefender urged never to download software from untrusted sources and install updates in a timely manner.

Personal data 515,000 people were compromised in an attack on the servers of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

Most of the data belongs to people in extremely vulnerable separated from their families due to military conflicts, migration and natural disasters, missing persons and their families, as well as persons in custody.

Who is behind the attack is unknown. The Red Cross urged hackers to do the right thing do not sell or distribute the information received.

The UK government will launch an advertising attack to end-to-end encryption, according to Rolling Stone. The main goal is to turn the public against Meta (formerly Facebook)'s decision to implement encryption in Messenger.

The UK Home Office hired advertising agency M&C Saatchi to implement this initiative.

The main argument of law enforcement officers against end-to-end encryption is a potential threat to the safety of children and the complication of identifying intruders. Due to these concerns, Meta has been forced to delay its default rollout on its Messenger and Instagram until 2023.

Through trackers embedded in emails, third parties can access the recipient's data, including their location, ProtonMail clarified.

During the detention of those suspected of participating in the REvil hacker group, Russian law enforcement officers arrested one of the people responsible for hacking the Colonial Pipeline company. This is reported by The Washington Post, citing sources.

Recall that last year Colonial Pipeline was attacked by a ransomware virus that stole about 100 GB of data and blocked computer systems. The attack was blamed on the DarkSide group, the hackers were linked to Russia.

Colonial Pipeline paid the attackers 75 BTC to restore work and return data.

Later, the FBI returned 63.7 BTC from the ransom paid by the company. It is not known how the agency gained access to the bitcoin wallet.

In January 2021, the FSB announced the detention of 14 members of the REvil group after an appeal from the United States.

In Brazil, the Telegram messenger is allowed to be blocked due to fears of the spread of fake news during the elections in October 2022, Valor Economico reports.

The head of the Supreme Electoral Court, Roberto Barroso, tried to contact the founder of the service, Pavel Durov, to discuss cooperation in but received no response.

Brazil has already concluded similar agreements with Twitter, Facebook and WhatsApp.

Also on ForkLog:

REvil is considered one of the largest groups behind the spread of ransomware viruses, and therefore the detention of its alleged members caused a great outcry. Last year, everyone was talking about ransomware, from cybersecurity experts and the media to government authorities.

We tell you what the threat from ransomware is and what consequences it will have for the cryptocurrency industry.

Ransomware pandemic: what is causing the wave of hacker attacks and how it will affect bitcoin

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Attack on the Red Cross, UK against end-to-end encryption and other cybersecurity developments - The Times Hub

Stop email tracking with encrypted email from ProtonMail – Geeky Gadgets

ProtonMail is a secure Switzerland-based email service that provides you with encrypted email accounts via both desktop and mobile applications with support for both iOS and Android operating systems. ProtonMail is incorporated in Switzerland, which means all user data is protected by strict Swiss privacy laws.

Once you sign up for a ProtonMail email account, you will benefit from end-to-end encryption and zero access encryption to secure emails. Meaning that not even the ProtonMail engineers can decrypt and read your emails and as a result, no third parties can snoop on your private communications or scan your email for your personal data. Extending your privacy, the Proton Calendar and Proton Drive services extend privacy to your events and documents and your secure email service is fully integrated within encrypted calendar enabling you to keep your events completely private and out of prying eyes.

ProtonMail is an email provider/service that respects privacy and puts people (not advertisers) first. Your data belongs to you, and our encryption ensures that. We also provide an anonymous email gateway. ProtonMail can be used on any device without software install. ProtonMail secure email accounts are fully compatible with other email providers. You can send and receive emails normally. We believe email privacy should be available to all. Thats why our code is open source and basic ProtonMail accounts are always free. You can support the service by upgrading to a paid account.

The integrated tracking protection feature finds and blocks tracking pixels, and has already blocked more than 1.3 million trackers, despite being available to less than 1% of Proton users in its beta trial. Email tracking is a form of digital surveillance that has become a serious concern in recent years.

Over 40% of emails sent and received daily are now tracked. While ProtonMail has always blocked third party content (and therefore tracking pixels) by default, this new feature will allow users to read their newsletters, register for online accounts and fully engage with their emails without letting advertisers watch.

For more information on how you can protect your email from tracking and third-party snooping jump over to the official ProtonMail website by following the link below

Source : Proton

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Stop email tracking with encrypted email from ProtonMail - Geeky Gadgets

NSA gains new cybersecurity authorities over national security systems – SC Media

The White House issued a memo today that gives the National Security Agency (NSA) more authority over protecting national security systems and seeks to better position the Department of Defense (DoD) and intelligence agencies to handle a range of digital national security threats targeting cloud systems and outdated encryption standards.

The memo places the NSA in a role similar to the one the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) plays among federal civilian agencies. The agency will now have the authority to issue emergency and binding directives that require agencies to take discrete actions on cybersecurity problems or emerging threats.

While each agency will still ultimately be responsible for protecting their sensitive systems and data, it gives the director of the NSA wide latitude to designate what constitutes a national security system at other defense and intelligence agencies, examine systems for security controls and incident response and issue new requirements or activities meant to shore up cybersecurity.

It also establishes the NSA as the focal point for visibility over cybersecurity threats that affect military and intelligence systems. Within two months, the NSA will issue a directive ordering agencies to send relevant information for any and all cross domain solutions or systems that connect to other systems with different levels of classification. Agencies will send logs, IT asset inventories, patching history and other information to the NSA, who will serve as the principal advisor for all such actions.

The memo also puts responsibility on DoD, the FBI, the CIA and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence to flesh out a framework for conducting incident response activities on national security systems and requires any breach to be reported to the NSA.

The order lays out a number of timelines for military and intelligence agencies to follow.

By March, each agency with systems that handle sensitive or classified national security data must update their plans around zero trust and cloud adoption. By April, the Committee on National Security Systems must establish minimum security controls for national security IT systems that are migrated to the cloud. Agencies must also confirm that all national security system data are using multifactor authentication and encryption protocols for, both for data-at-rest and in transit, by July.

On the encryption side, the NSA has been at the forefront of implementing new encryption protocols that can withstand potential attacks from quantum computers in the future. The memo puts the NSA in the driver's seat of implementing similar transformations across the national security space, including contractors. Defense and intel agencies will have six months to map out any systems that are not-compliant or using NSA approved algorithms and establish timelines for replacing them.

A House report on the National Defense Authorization Act last September explicitly floated giving the NSA the authority to issue binding operational directives, saying that while current law allows the Joint Functional Headquarters-Department of Defense Information Network agencies to direct required actions to the majority of the federal government, there appear to be impediments to a comparable authority over National Security Systems.

At the time, one former NSA employee told SC Media that it would depend on the specifics but if granted, he expected such authorities to be used not only to defend U.S. government networks, but also enhance intelligence collection against the foreign adversaries targeting them.

"No federal agency has ever said, Please dont give us an authority, and intelligence agencies are certainly no exception, said Jake Williams, a former NSA hacker and chief technology officer at BreachQuest. "Intelligence agencies only operate within the authorities theyre granted and certainly any BODs given to NSA will be used to enhance the intelligence mission.

Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., praised the move in a statement and pointed to the requirement that agencies report hacks to the NSA, calling for Congress to pass legislation he authored imposing similar requirements on critical infrastructure. A bill to do so was stripped out of last year's NDAA, but sources in Congress have told SC Media that they are eyeing a number of possible legislative vehicles, including an upcoming government spending bill due in February and as a rider to the United States Innovation and Competition Act, to get it passed into law.

"Now its time for Congress to act by passing our bipartisan legislationthat would require critical infrastructure owners and operators to report such cyber intrusions within 72 hours," Warner said.

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NSA gains new cybersecurity authorities over national security systems - SC Media

UK Government Apparently Hoping It Can Regulate End-To-End Encryption Out Of Existence – Techdirt

from the sure-hope-'the-children'-are-grateful-for-the-shitty-future-being-handed dept

Politicians -- those motivated by the notion of "doing something" -- want to end encryption. They don't want this to affect their communications and data security. But they don't see the harm in stripping these protections from the general public. Often, the argument is nothing better than "only criminals want end-to-end encryption," something they trot out as a truism despite plenty of evidence to the contrary.

But these politicians (and government officials) are cowards. They refuse to call a backdoor a backdoor. They come up with all sorts of euphemisms while pretending compliance with proposed laws won't result in the creation of backdoors that can be exploited by everyone, not just the "good guys." They also deploy other euphemisms to attack encryption that protects millions of members of the public, referring to good encryption as "warrant-proof" or "military-grade." Those terms never survive examination, but the narrative persists because most members of the public have no interest in closely examining falsehoods uttered by governments.

The UK government has expressed an unhealthy determination to undermine encryption for years now. It has the fanciest of plans to undo protections enjoyed by UK residents for reason ranging from "the children" to "the terrorists." The underlying intent never changes even if the name on the office doors do. Regulators come and go but the desire remains. Even the bills get renamed, as though a different shade of lipstick would make the UK's anti-encryption pig any more desirable.

Rebranding from "Online Harms" to "Online Safety" only changed the tablecloths in the Titanic's dining room. The UK government wants encryption dead. But presumably "safety" sounds better than "harms," especially when the government affirmatively wants to harm the safety of millions of UK residents.

The Internet Society has taken a look at the revamped and rebranded bill and has delivered a report [PDF] that explains exactly where on the Internet doll the UK government plans to engage in inappropriate touching. There's no mention of backdoors or broken encryption, but complying with the law means possibly doing both.

The draft Online Safety Bill places a duty of care on service providers within the scope of the draft bill to moderate illegal and harmful content on their platforms, with fines and penalties for those that fail to uphold this duty. The only way for service providers that offer end-to-end encryption to comply with this duty of care would be to remove or weaken the encryption that they offer.

That's the end result of these demands. But the politicians and regulators pushing this are unwilling to directly refer to the harms the bill will cause. There's no ban on end-to-end encryption. There's no mandate for backdoors. Instead, the bill hopes to achieve these ends by applying regulatory pressure that makes both of these outcomes unavoidable.

Service providers deploying end-to-end encryption obviously cannot see the content of communications between users. The UK government says that's no longer acceptable. Providers need to be proactive in preventing the spread of certain content. That leaves them with only one option.

Ofcom can require that service providers use accredited technology to identify harmful content and swiftly take down that content. To comply with this requirement and fulfil their duty of care, service providers will likely need to resort to upload filters and other mechanisms that may interfere with the use of end-to-end encryption.

Basically, the same thing that saw Apple catch a considerable amount of heat will be expected to be standard operating procedure for any tech company doing business in the UK. Client-side filtering is the most efficient way to prevent the uploading and sharing of "harmful content." Shutting it off at the source means either invading devices or removing at least one end of the end-to-end encryption. And once those options are available, it will only be a matter of time before the UK government starts demanding access to unencrypted devices and/or messages.

And the UK government has specifically cited Apple's now-defunct plans to strip protections it previously extended to users and device owners as evidence the proposed law is a net gain for society.

[I]n the Daily Telegraph article announcing the Safety Challenge Fund, Home Secretary Priti Patel points to Apples client-side scanning proposal as a positive example, raising concerns about the criteria for evaluating Challenge Fund proposals.

In its quest for easy wins, the UK government is ignoring the long-term fallout of these demands. While it may have no problem stripping UK residents of strong data and communication protections, it may find it more difficult to talk powerful businesses into accepting less-than-solid protections for their financial interactions and transmission of sensitive proprietary info. And government employees still rely heavily on third-party contractors for communication services and data transmission/storage. These same employees also rely on devices and cell phones manufactured by companies that will now be forced to make their products less secure for everyone who uses them.

Everyone loses. But the people who will lose more and lose it faster simply don't matter. Before the cold reality of broken encryption hits home for politicians, they'll have already collected the PR wins needed to secure more terms in office. And with more time comes more power. Eventually, the UK government may find a way to exempt it from the impositions placed on the private sector, elevating them above the people they serve. In the end, very little will have actually been done to address the problems (child exploitation, terrorism) cited to justify these impositions. The only guarantee is that devices, communication services, and the internet at large will be expected to make huge sacrifices in service to the UK government's talking points.

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Filed Under: backdoors, encryption, end-to-end encryption, going dark, online harms, online safety, online safety bill, uk

UK Government Apparently Hoping It Can Regulate End-To-End Encryption Out Of Existence - Techdirt

Android Encryption on the rise: Do I need To encrypt my smartphone? – Phandroid – News for Android

Encryption has long since been one of the most secure methods for ensuring privacy and security. The method works by converting unencrypted information, known as plaintext, into ciphertext. In laymans terms, encryption works to scramble your data into a gibberish form, preventing any third party without a decryption key from accessing it.

Recent years have seen a rise in device encryption as more people become aware of privacy and security concerns. The prospect of having any third party, let it even be law enforcement officials snooping into personal information, is enough for anyone to try and enable personal security.

What makes the situation particularly alarming is that these law enforcement officials have the required means of exploiting device security to acquire information. Meaning that such methods do exist, leaving a gaping window for anyone, including a cybercriminal, to use them. Therefore, amidst this, encrypting your smartphone might seem like a fair idea.

With a rise in awareness regarding the growing data breach and privacy concerns, mobile security has become one of the topmost concerns for people. Nowadays, people are more inclined towards a secure device that guarantees protection against hack attacks and data breaches.

Although Android devices are generally considered unsecure, Google does put in efforts to ensure the OS remains secure. A typical Android smartphone does ensure security by encrypting your data as soon as you lock your device through passcode, fingerprint, or even face recognition.

The information only decodes through a key that regenerates once you unlock your smartphone. Therefore, anyone who even manages to steal your locked phone will only come across a stream of gibberish and wont have access to your original data.

Smartphones nowadays have several similar layers of protection following different encryption algorithms to ensure security. While many encryption keys focus on ensuring device lock security, several encryption keys are available to secure sensitive data. Moreover, since the device hardware and OS are responsible for managing these keys, users dont have to fret over the long processes of setting up these additional security measures.

Apart from encrypting your device as default as soon as you lock it, Android allows two different methods of encrypting your data that are:

Android 7.0 and higher support file-based encryption (FBE) allow users to encrypt different files with different keys. These keys encrypt the complete file and its content and enable users to unlock these files independently. However, with FBE, other information such as directory layouts, file size, creation/modification times, and permission are not encrypted.

The advent of Android 9 introduced metadata encryption which relies on a single key available at boot time. This single key is responsible for encrypting all of the devices content, including the files left behind by FBE. The designated key is protected by the key master, which is further protected by verified boot.

Encryption on your Android device is tied to your screen lock passcode and doesnt work without it. Meaning, if you are willing to encrypt your device, you will have to enter your passcode once or twice.

The default encryption method is relatively simple and doesnt require many complexities. Through the following simple steps you can encrypt your device completely. Do remember to charge your one before proceeding with this:

Throughout the process, remain patient and vigilant. Your smartphone might restart at several stages, and to ensure your data gets completely encrypted, only start using your phone after the process is complete. Also, make sure not to stop the process midway; otherwise, you might end up losing all of your data.

Generally, the default Android encryption is secure against various data breaches and hack attacks. Primarily, Google religiously rolls out patches for vulnerabilities found within the OS that could potentially allow a cybercriminal to exploit user security. However, despite that, anyone with slightly more advanced tools can quite easily disrupt user security.

Each Android device has a complete protection mode that applies to the device before the user first unlocks the device after restarting it. Once you have unlocked your device, your phone goes into the Protected Until First User Authentication or After First Unlock mode.

Most of the encrypted files start existing in the quick access mods within the AFU mode. Amidst this, anyone with the right forensic tools can exploit any vulnerability within the system to grab further decryption keys and ultimately access more data from within the device.

Although encryption is a method for securing your information, encrypting your device does not entail online protection. Then even if your device is heavily encrypted, every time you go online and share any file, you remain vulnerable to tracebacks, spying, or surveillance.

Therefore while online, you need a different form of encrypted protection such as a proxy serviceor a VPN to ensure security. These tools help hide user data and identity from surveillance agencies by hiding IP addresses and changing user location.

Encryption is indeed one of the most reliable options for anyone seeking to ensure security. Protecting your data within times like today has become downright crucial with the rising surge in data breaches and hack attacks. Since the government and surveillance agencies are also constantly exposing our privacy and security, it is best to take matters into your own hands and ensure safety by encrypting your information.

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Android Encryption on the rise: Do I need To encrypt my smartphone? - Phandroid - News for Android

The Next Evolution of the Database Sharding Architecture –

Key Takeaways

With mobile phones and the internet becoming what some would call a daily necessity, it's not uncommon for websites and business services to receive billions of visits on a weekly basis - and thats not all.

Sales days like Black Friday in North America or Double Eleven (aka Singles Day) in Asia are excellent examples of traditional retail enterprises adapting to the digital world. These enterprises must now contend with new needs and challenges, to successfully achieve their business goals.

They all have to answer the same question: we need to drive our digital sales on this Black Friday, but when we succeed and this incredible traffic reaches the database cluster, will our databases be able to handle it?

Different business cases have multiple options when it comes to database solutions. Such options range from NoSQL products (e.g., MongoDB, Cassandra, Amazon DynamoDB, etc.), to NewSQL products (like Amazon Aurora or CockroachDB, which are popular these days).

Besides these great solutions, some industries will also consider transparent sharding on top of existing database clusters.

According to the database trend ranking DB-Engines, although many new database offerings are hitting the market, the traditional relational database still retains a considerable share of the pie.

Considering the new challenges databases are facing, is there an efficient and cost-effective way to leverage these types of databases and enhance them through some new practical ideas? Database transparent sharding is one of the best answers to this question.

One of the best techniques for this is to split the data into separate rows and columns. This splitting of large database tables into multiple small tables are known as shards. The original table is divided into either vertical shards or horizontal shards. Terminologies used to label these tables can be subjective to VS1 for vertical shards and HS1 for flat shards. The number represents the first table or the first schema. Then 2 and 3, and so on. These subsets of data are referred to as the table's original schema.

So what is the difference between sharding and partitioning? Both sharding and partitioning include breaking large data sets into smaller ones. But a key difference is that sharding implies that the breakdown of data is spread across multiple computers, either as horizontal or vertical partitioning. On the other hand, partitioning is when the database is broken down into different subsets but held within a single database, sometimes referred to as the database instance.

Since for sharding data is divided into numerous pieces stored across different machines, this approach offers the following advantages:

However, sharding architecture is not perfect and has some drawbacks:

Like for most things in technology, let alone in life, there is no silver bullet. You should perform a thorough analysis to have a complete picture of your needs and scenarios, and only then move on to choose the best possible solution.

Generally, the advantages of sharding architecture prevail, and many excellent products that play an essential role in the database industry are based on this architecture. Citus or Vitess have their respective definitions, but they're based on database-sharding architecture in nature.

Citus manages a coordinator (proxy) cluster to distribute the PostgreSQL cluster, while Vitess shards MySQL alike. Both of them concentrate on providing a low-cost and efficient distributed solution of traditional but prevailing relational databases. Actually, sharding architecture is fundamental for most NoSQL and NewSQL products as well, but that would be another topic focusing on sharding with NoSQL and NewSQL. This article focuses on sharding with relational databases since there are some innovations brought to the classic sharding technique.

The occurrence of sharding is the result of the distributed needs of databases. These days an increasing number of new issues involve databases, such as privacy protection, SQL audit, tenant, distributed authentication, etc.

These represent real-world new demands for databases. How to deal with these issues is an inevitable question for all database products, no matter the type of database. Could these issues be addressed with a database sharding solution? It looks like sharding needs to evolve to meet these challenges, which is our topic i.e., what's the next evolution for database sharding architecture.

My answer is Database Plus, the guiding concept for creating a distributed database system for more than sharding, positioned above DBMS.

It was conceived with the aim to build a standardized layer and ecosystem above existing and fragmented databases, as well as provide a unified and standardized database usage specification. This provides for upper-level applications, and the challenges faced by businesses due to underlying databases fragmentation get minimized as much as possible. The result is an environment where the applications only need to speak with a standardized service, instead of different ones for each database.

This idea was initiated by the PMC (Project Management Committee) of Apache ShardingSphere, and it took about a year to release 5.0.0 GA and implement this concept in its architecture.

In the 3.x and 4.x release stages, we defined Apache ShardingSphere as a distributed database middleware (sharding architecture) to only solve the sharding issue. However, new challenges for databases and the community pushed this project to evolve and include more features such as data encryption, shadow database, distributed authentication, distributed governance, etc. All of these changes go beyond the traditional sharding range, as sharding is just one part of Database Plus.

Apache ShardingSphere's example supports my thesis that a simple and classic sharding architecture can do more than sharding. The kernel mechanism directs all traffic through a proxy or driver, and then if it could parse SQLs and know the location of every database, the following jobs will be easy to perform:

So what do these jobs mean to the end users? Based on these kernel jobs, the products of Apache ShardingSphere are qualified to ease users database pain points.

Originally sharding, data encryption, shadow database, distributed authentication, distributed governance, etc. were all based on the necessary steps above. The architecture proposed by the Database Plus concept of Apache ShardingSphere brings these enhancing features with flexibility in mind.

All functions are just plugins that can be added or removed at any given time in this distributed system. Some people may just want to shard a database, while others may prefer to do data encryption. Users needs never stop evolving and are diverse, and for this reason Database Plus can be fully customizable and continuously receive new plugins (features) allowing it to meet users demands one by one specifically and flexibly.

ShardingSpheres architecture includes the following four layers as shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1 - ShardingSphere's Four Layer Architecture

Foundation Layer:Provides a variety of access terminals such as driver or proxy to flexibly meet the needs of users in different scenarios.

Storage Layer:All the functions are supported in these databases with the possibility to include more.

Function Layer:Provides a variety of functional plug-ins that meet users' needs, allowing a high degree of flexibility in plug-in choice and combination.

Solution Layer:End users are provided with industry-oriented (e.g. financial, e-commerce and entertainment industries) and specific scenario-oriented standard product solutions (e.g. distributed database solution, encrypted database solution or database gateway).

ShardingSphere JDBC and ShardingSphere Proxy have been polished and tested for five years and are now available in production. Many community users provided relevant production cases, and production feasibility has been verified.

With the shared core functions among different ShardingSphere clients, users can also choose hybrid deployment to achieve balance between query performance and management convenience (shown in Figure 2 below).

Figure 2 - ShardingSphere JDBC and Proxy Hybrid Development

The Apache ShardingSphere community proposed a SQL dialect, i.e., DistSQL (distributed SQL), to operate and manage all functions of ShardingSphere.

SQL is the standard and conventional interaction method with databases. However there are many new features in this distributed database system which required us to think of a SQL dialect to configure and use these new functions.

DistSQL allows users to use SQL-like commands to create, modify or delete a distributed database and table, or to encrypt or decrypt data. All of the above mentioned functions could be performed with distributed SQL. Some DistSQL snippets are presented below.

Figure 3 - DistSQL in Action

Distributed database system governance capability is necessary to alleviate the suffering of distributed cluster management. In the ShardingSphere ecosystem where computing and storage are separated, features are greatly enhanced in the new version including:

Additionally, the distributed lock new feature is scheduled to be released soon.

Figure 4 - ShardingSpheres Distributed Governance

Although many advantages have been listed above, there are some constraints or limitations that are worth mentioning. You should give careful consideration to the following items before adopting ShardingSphere::

This section will introduce two practical examples to demonstrate how create a distributed database and create an encrypted table with DistSQL - the SQL dialect connecting all the elements of the ShardingSphere ecosystem.

This part will guide you through an example of how to leverage DistSQL to create a distributed database. Users and applications visit Proxy to achieve a logic table (distributed table) which has been sharded among different servers. There is no need to take care of these shards, instead make your applications operate and manage this logical table.



Login Proxy CLI by executing SQLcommand:

mysql -h127.0.0.1 -uroot -P3307 -proot

Register two MySQL databases using DistSQL

ADD RESOURCE ds_0( HOST=, PORT=3306, DB=demo_ds_0, USER=root, PASSWORD=root );

ADD RESOURCE ds_1 ( HOST=, PORT=3306, DB=demo_ds_1, USER=root, PASSWORD=root );

Create sharding rule by distSQL

CREATE SHARDING TABLE RULE t_order( RESOURCES(ds_0,ds_1), SHARDING_COLUMN=order_id, TYPE(NAME=hash_mod,PROPERTIES("sharding-count"=4)), GENERATED_KEY(COLUMN=order_id,TYPE(NAME=snowflake,PROPERTIES("worker-id"=123))) );

Create sharding table by the previous sharding rule

CREATE TABLE `t_order` ( `order_id` int NOT NULL, `user_id` int NOT NULL, `status` varchar(45) DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`order_id`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4;

Show resources, sharding databases and sharding tables




Show sharding tables


Below are the tables in MySQL:

And below are the tables in ShardingSphere Proxy:

Drop sharding table

DROP TABLE t_order;

This example shows you how to create an encrypted table with DistSQL. The data encryption feature is ShardingSphere Proxy, which helps encrypt and decrypt data. Applications do not need any coding refactoring, and just send the plaintext to Proxy, where plaintext is encrypted and resends the ciphertext to the databases. Additionally, users can configure which column in which table should be encrypted by which encryption algorithm.



Login Proxy CLI by executing the following command:

Add Resources by distSQL.

ADD RESOURCE ds_0 ( HOST=, PORT=3306, DB=ds_0, USER=root, PASSWORD=root );

Create encrypt rule

CREATE ENCRYPT RULE t_encrypt ( COLUMNS( (NAME=user_id,PLAIN=user_plain,CIPHER=user_cipher,TYPE(NAME=AES,PROPERTIES('aes-key-value'='123456abc')))));


Create encrypt table

CREATE TABLE `t_encrypt` ( `order_id` int NOT NULL, `user_plain` varchar(45) DEFAULT NULL, `user_cipher` varchar(45) DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`order_id`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4;

Below is the result in MySQL:

Insert a data into this table

More here:
The Next Evolution of the Database Sharding Architecture -

Encryption Software Market Scope and overview, with Highest growth in the near future by leading key players – Taiwan News

Encryption Software Market is valued approximately USD 3.48 Billion in 2019 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 16.80% over the forecast period 2020-2027.

Encryption software assist in defending the confidentiality of the information stored in folders and files and data travelling over networks or data in-transit as per the compliance and security requirements of an organization. The demand for encryption software is expected to grow in global pandemic of COVID-19 as many organizations initiated for work from home and communicate through online medium. Therefore, need for high encryption is emerged in most organizations to provide safety and security to the data from data theft and breach.

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The rapid growth in cases of data theft and breach is anticipated towards the higher growth in encryption software over the forecast years. For instance: As per study by Accenture 2019, over 130 average number of security breach registered in 2017 and increased with 11% that leads to 145 average number of security breach in 2018. In addition, exponential increase in the adoption of cloud and virtualization technologies will propel the growth of market over the forecast years. However, the availability of free, open source, and pirated encryption software and budgetary constraints associated with encryption software hampers the market growth.

The regional analysis of global Encryption Software Market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America, and Rest of the World. North America is the leading/significant region across the world in terms of market share owing to the increasing demand to adhere to stringent regulatory compliances, increasing presence of encryption software vendors, and growing government support. Whereas, Asia-Pacific is also anticipated to exhibit highest growth rate / CAGR over the forecast period 2020-2027. Factors such as heavy investments made by private and public sectors for securing sensitive data would create lucrative growth prospects for the Encryption Software Market across Asia-Pacific region.

Major market player included in this report are:Bloombase, Inc.Cisco Systems, Inc.Check Point Software Technologies Ltd.EMC CorporationIBM CorporationIntel SecurityMicrosoft CorporationOracle CorporationSophos Group PLCSymantec Corp.

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and Deployment offerings of key players.

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The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By Deployment:On-premiseCloud-based

By Application:Disk EncryptionFile/Folder EncryptionData base EncryptionWeb communication EncryptionOthers

By End-use:BFSIIT & TelecomRetailHealthcareGovernment & Public administrationOthers

By Region:North AmericaU.S.CanadaEuropeUKGermanyFranceSpainItalyROE

Asia PacificChinaIndiaJapanAustraliaSouth KoreaRoAPACLatin AmericaBrazilMexicoRest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year 2017, 2018Base year 2019Forecast period 2020 to 2027

Target Audience of the Global Encryption Software Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & AdvisorsLarge, medium-sized, and small enterprisesVenture capitalistsValue-Added Resellers (VARs)Third-party knowledge providersInvestment bankersInvestors

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Encryption Software Market Scope and overview, with Highest growth in the near future by leading key players - Taiwan News

CGV Research | Why Solana May Become the iOS of the Encrypted World? – NewsBTC

by Shigeru, CryptogramVenture FoF Research Fellow

If you have an iPhone and happen to be a fan or active participant of Solanas systems and apps, you may feel a sense of deja vu when you use them separately at many moments.

Do Solana and iOS have a lot in common? It just seems like a hunch. However, after analyzing and comparing the two carefully from the historical and current perspectives, I got an astonishing finding: the previous intuition may be incredibly close to some type of truth. Moreover, a bold prediction came to my mind: one day in the future, Solana may become the iOS in the encrypted world.

In my view, although iOS and Solana belong to the Internet and encrypted worlds, respectively, they share the same logic of the first principle that supports their development.The following conclusions were jointly organized by CGV FOF research team.

User experience, as the core competitiveness of a product, has been mentioned repeatedly. Due to Apples relentless efforts for the ultimate user experience, iOS seems to be always smoother than Android.

Virtual keyboard was not created by iPhone. Microsoft, Palm, and other smartphone manufacturers have tried to promote smartphones with the full touch screen, but iPhone overcame the technical difficulties in capacitive touch screen, multi-touch, improving the screen touch experience to an untouchable level.

For instance, iOS gives first priority for screen response, and it responds to TouchMediaServiceCore architecture in order. Simply put, when the user touches the screen, the system will first handle the screen display (Touch); while the priority response level of Android is ApplicationFrameworkLibraryKernel architecture, and display-related graphics and image processing (Library) are only in the third level. There are a host of similar factors, which directly cause a huge difference in user experience between iOS and Android.

Similarly, although Solana is not the first underlying public chain, it has attracted an increasing number of crypto developers and users by providing extremely high TPS and low transaction fees, breaking through the biggest development constraint that most public chains face in the same period.

Performance comparison between Solana and other mainstream public chains

Data source: RareLiquid

For instance, Solana can deal with over 50,000 transactions per second while maintaining a block time of 400 milliseconds, and improve the TPS based on Moores Law, thus providing a good predictability of TPS scaling. Additionally, Solanas low transaction fees are impressive, that is, estimated $10 for 1 million transactions.

Among them, Solanas core consensus mechanism is Proof of History (PoH), which aims to solve the time problem in a distributed network that lacks a single reliable time source. By using a verifiable delay function, PoH allows each node to generate timestamps locally via SHA256 calculations, which improves overall network efficiency by eliminating the need to broadcast timestamps across the time network.

The user experience of public chains can be reflected by the number of crypto wallets and the frequency of use. Take Phantom, one of the most popular wallets on Solana, as an example, it almost integrates all the features of the Solana ecosystem, including token swaps, collection of NFTs and collectibles, connection to hardware wallets, anti-monitoring, Web3.0 support, and the obtainment of incomes through pledging SOL.

Solana Phantom & Ethereum Metamask monthly active users

Data source: Grayscale Building Blocks

Relying on the excellent one-stop experience, Phantom has become the preferred wallet for the users of Solana, with the monthly active users exceeding 1.2 million. During the two months from August to October 2021, the users of Solana on Phantom increased by 5 times.

The user interface (UI), as a human-computer interaction window for offering various functions required by users, determines whether the software or product is intuitive for users to operate.

iOS has a tight system for platform UI design specifications. From buttons to icon styles, and from image size to resolution, they all require special customization. In this way, it not only unifies the styles of various programs but also helps users to get accustomed to the way of using iOS software. Nowadays, the rounded rectangular design, with only one button on the front and the rest completely covered by a glass panel, has become the iconic design of the iPhone.

The project team should pay attention to UI design whether in the field of Internet, blockchain, or encryption. Besides, a user-oriented UI design will make the product more popular and sell better. Dr. Nielsen, an expert in human-computer interaction, claimed that usability is a prerequisite for survival in the field of the Internet. If a website is difficult to use, then users will immediately abandon it.

Some people say that when they buy tokens, they only look at the logo of the project. Though just a joke, it illustrates the importance of the visual design of the project. The logo of Solana reveals that its team that pays attention to details and has good aesthetic skills.

The logo color of Solana is a gradient from green to purple. Similar colors can be found in nature, such as the aurora borealis, mysterious and elegant. In addition, many cyberpunk-themed sci-fi movies often use purple, green, and blue in their images, reflecting the prospects of Solanas innovative blockchain technology development.

Solana ecosystem (DeFi fields)

Data source: Solanians

Many Solana projects, at first glance, seem to be designed by the same designer, with a very consistent experience in terms of color matching, interface design, and interaction design. The interface is intuitive, concise, and easy to operate. Users can easily operate Solana without much training, as they can understand the functions on the interface at a glance after using the software.

According to CGV FOF, On a well-known Solana IDO platform, the UI performance of a project is given a high assessment priority when reviewing the project. It seems that Solana improves users acceptance of Solana from the top down through its incubation and support of projects with outstanding UI.

Based on the second law of thermodynamics, isolated systems have no energy exchange with the environment and always change spontaneously in the direction of increasing disorder (entropy), i.e., the principle of increase of entropy. In view of this phenomenon, Prigogine, winner of The Nobel Prize in chemistry, proposed that the system must be open to transferring from a disordered state to an ordered structure, that is, the system must exchange matter and energy with the outside world.

The opening of the business ecosystem requires core companies to enable partners to have access to their resources and capabilities, attract them to join the ecosystem, and achieve value co-creation through mutual empowerment.

Since its inception, Apple has attached great importance to external empowerment, providing external developers with powerful development kits and allowing them to connect users through the app store, thus giving birth to a large number of popular apps such as Instagram, Snapchat, Uber, and WhatsApp. Compared with other platforms, Apples release mechanism for developers apps is fairer and more reasonable. The download ranking data on the software store is true and reliable, which has created a good competition system and environment for developers, making developers grasp an accurate understanding of what their users really want.

Solana has also devoted a great deal of effort to ecological construction. Solana has a long-term funding plan to provide excellent projects with a full range of resource support, including targeted funding, VC referrals, technical support, recruitment support, marketing, and legal resources.

Development of Solana and other mainstream public chains for active developers

Data source: Santiment

Take the hackathon for example. In 2021, Solana officially held three global hackathons. The most recent hackathon, with a prize pool of $1 million, over 15,000 registrants, and more than 300 projects submitted by developers across the world, attracted the attention and support of a host of developers and generated a series of quality Solana native apps.

Furthermore, it is worth noting that 90-95% of the hackathon developers expressed their willingness to carry out long-term development on Solana. These talented developers will constantly power the Solana ecosystem.

It may be a bit radical to say that Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple, changed the world, but it is fair to say that he was synonymous with the spirit of innovation pursued by the United States and all mankind.

Jobs was a giant standing at the intersection of technology and humanities. His combination of idealism and perfectionism enabled Apple to take a completely different route from the traditional industry.

Take simplicity as an example, Steve Jobs love of minimalism and his exposure to Buddhism, let people directly know their heart without words, exerted a great impact on Apples no button design. In addition to pursuing minimalism in product design, Jobs took the initiative to eliminate many product lines and only launched 1-2 products each year, with the best quality.

In my opinion, Jobs was to Apple what Sam Bankman-Fried (SBF) is to Solana. I dont mean to deny Solanas incredible team, which is just as respected as Apples tens of thousands of talented engineers and development teams.

SBF was placed on Forbess list of the richest people in the world 2021

Data source: Forbes

Initially, SBF was a trader and spent his early days at Jane Street, a quantitative giant. He founded Alameda Research (a quantitative trading firm) and FTX (a centralized cryptocurrency exchange) with a team consisting of finance personnelquantitative analysts, engineers, high-frequency traders. They are seldom concerned with the centralization/decentralization debate and focus on the large-scale expansion of the blockchain.

After leaving Jane Street in 2017, SBF took time to think about potential opportunities. He realized that Cryptocurrency has many characteristics, it may be a very inefficient system, and there is a great demand for liquidity. This is basically: sudden huge demand, very rapid growth. So, SBF tried to figure out the ultimate solution to these issues. Later, he discovered Solana.

Anatoly Yakovenko, a co-founder of Solana, once described the scene of SBFs first contact with Solana before it was launched on the mainnet in 2019: During the test, 80 transactions were processed in an average of 4.02 seconds. This result impressed SBF. After communicating with the team and realizing Solanas huge development potential, SBF immediately decided to establish Serum (a decentralized derivatives exchange) based on the Solana.

In this way, Solana not only won a new application project but also got a perfect encryption spokesperson (just like NBA got James). From that day onwards, Solana was reinvented by SBF.

In January 2021, SBF said on Twitter that, Ill buy as much SOL as you have, right now, at $3. Sell me all you want. Though a joke, it revealed that SBF had high hopes for SOL.

I still remember that in those days, iPhone fans lined up in front of the store all night to buy a new generation of iPhone, hoping to be among the first to own the new iPhone, just as they wished to get tickets to a superstar concert.

The iPhone launched by Apple every year is not only a new product but also a brand-new cultural phenomenon. This is a market effect that no other company is likely to have when launching a new product.

Taking the number of Twitter followers as an example, according to statistics from CGV FOF, Solana has as many as 1.1 million followers, which is not as many as that of Ethereum (1.97 million) but ranks first among other mainstream public chains, Polkadot (1.01 million), Avalanche (450,000), Fantom (270,000), and Near (230,000).

Lets take a look at the fan token, Solanas meme coin is Samoyedcoin ($SAMO). It was inspired by Dogecoin, Sam Bankman-Fried (containing the letters S, A, and M), and Solanas co-founder Anatoly Yakovenko (whose hometown is the birthplace of the Samoyed dog). Nowadays, SAMO has become the mascot and promotion ambassador of the Solana ecosystem, and the peak circulation market value of SAMOs token exceeded $700 million.

In the Solana community, you can often feel a completely different atmosphere from any other public chain community. We often see the fierce quarrel between ETH diehards and Solana diehards. It is completely different from the peaceful and joyful atmosphere of the Near, Avalanche, and Fantom communities. This may be the price Solana pays for choosing to take a different path from the ETH (EVM).

It may be a stretch to draw an analogy between Solana and iOS from the above dimensions. Some people are still criticizing the recent instability of the Solana network. But in the long run, through network upgrade, expansion of service nodes, and adjustment of incentive mechanism, these issues will become an episode in the development process of Solana.

In fact, Apples rise did not happen overnight but was accompanied by several important turning points that established Apples status as king.

For example, iPhone 4 was an epoch-making product that made breakthroughs in hardware, software, and design. It was the first cellphone that used the commercial retina screen, completed the dual evolution of cellphone camera hardware and algorithms, featured the most classic shape, and used iPhone self-developed chips

In cosmology, the big bang, generated by a singularity, gave birth to the universe we are familiar with. The singularity is an important turning point in history. The birth of iPhone4 is a singularity in Apples development history, allowing Apple to embark on a rapid development path.

I try to list a few singularities to predict Solanas vision of becoming the iOS in the encrypted world:

The number of C-end users exceeds 100 million. On November 7, 2021, the number of active users of Solanas Phantom wallet amounted to 1 million. It seems like a big leap from 1 million to 100 million. However, the exponential effect of the growth of the encrypted world network will speed up the process considerably. Anatoly Yakovenko, a co-founder of Solana, held a more positive opinion. He has repeatedly stated that with the launch and operation of new technologies, Solanas next goal is to attract one billion users. You know, the number of VISA users worldwide exceeded 3 billion as early as 2018.

Over 80% of the transactions are performed by institutional users. The participation of more institutional users in the encrypted market will attract more capital. The bull market in 2021 is driven by institutions. Many institutions, such as Tesla, Microstrategy, Grayscale, and the ARK founded by Catherine Wood, have entered the encrypted market one after another. SBF deems that the crypto sector driven primarily by potential institutional investment is likely to grow in the next five years. In my opinion, according to the Pareto principle (80/20 rule), if institutional users become the main force of the Solana market, and if their trading volume accounts for more than 80% of the total volume, Solana will usher in a new round of development.

Over a third of Ethereum projects migrate to Solana. In June of this year, Neon Labs, a cross-chain bridge between Ethereum and Solana, was released. Neon allows anyone to run Ether smart contracts on the Solana blockchain, making it easier for developers to build programs that work on both blockchains. It would be an exciting time if more than one-third of the projects that have been deployed and developed on Ethereum are simultaneously building applications on Solana.

Solanas total market capitalization reaches 50% of Ethereums. SBF reckons that Solanas unique underlying technology for developing the DeFi protocol will drive a spike in the price of its SOL tokens. He even believes that Solana can surpass Ether as the largest decentralized financial platform. Ethereums current market value (about $470 billion) is still nearly eight times that of Solana (about $55 billion). If Solana reaches 50% of Ethereums market value, it will be an important milestone in the development of Solana.

The singularities of Solana ecological development (forecast)

Will Solana become the iOS in the encrypted world? Probably nothing.

I very much agree with Kyle Samani, managing partner of Multicoin Capital, I think were going to see two things [Solana and Ethereum] coexist. We have iOS, we have Android. And, today, everyone knows you have to build an iPhone app and an Android app.

Perhaps, in the near future, Solana and Ethereum may become encrypted worlds iOS and Android, respectively. Fortunately, we are all witnesses and participators of this great change.

Note: This paper is a CGV FOF Research Report and does not constitute any investment suggestions. It is for reference only.

About CGV FOF: the Master fund from Asia, composed of family funds such as Japan, Korea, Chinese mainland and Taiwan, and focuses on investing in Crypto Fund and Crypto Studio. CGV FOF is headquartered in Japan and has branches in Singapore and Canada.


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CGV Research | Why Solana May Become the iOS of the Encrypted World? - NewsBTC

Swiss Army Bans WhatsApp And Other Foreign Encrypted Messaging Services – Lowyat.NET

The Swiss army has instructed personnel to stop using foreign encrypted messaging services such as WhatsApp, Signal and Telegram, the Associated Press reports. It is said that the notice was issued via a letter to top army staff in December, citing privacy concerns based on US authorities ability to access data.

Instead, its top brass has ordered staff to use the Swiss-made Threema app instead. To bring you up to speed, the platform is an open-source premium messaging service that is available on desktop and mobile devices. Threema touts its service to be fully privacy-oriented, featuring its own end-to-end encryption for all of its communications, and does not necessarily require its users to link their phone numbers or email addresses to the app.

Furthermore, the platforms servers are home-based and do not fall under US jurisdiction, unlike most of its competitors. The Swiss army says the Threema app adheres to regulations in Europe about data protection.

It is speculated that the move was decided due to primary concerns regarding the ability of authorities in the US to access data stored by companies that fall under its jurisdiction. These companies are required to adhere to the US CLOUD Act, which requires them to comply with search warrants issued by the US authorities, regardless of where their servers are located.

Meanwhile, Threema has taken pride in the Swiss armys decision to drop all of the foreign messaging apps in favour of its own. From pocket knife to messaging app, the Swiss Army really knows how to equip its personnel with the right tools, the company tweeted.

(Source: Associated Press / Threema [1] [2])

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Swiss Army Bans WhatsApp And Other Foreign Encrypted Messaging Services - Lowyat.NET