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DeepMind experimenting with ‘Shadow Hand’ that can withstand a severe beating in the name of AI research – Livescience.com

A U.K. robotics startup has claimed its new robot hand designed for artificial intelligence (AI) research is the most dexterous and robust out there.

The Shadow Robot Companys "Shadow Hand," built in collaboration with Googles DeepMind, can go from fully open to closed within 0.5 seconds and can perform a normal fingertip pinch with up to 10 newtons of force.

Its primarily built for AI research, specifically "real-world" machine learning projects that focus on robotic dexterity. These projects may include TK EXAMPLE (OpenAI is using a Shadow Hand device for dexterity training, teaching it to manipulate objects in its hand). However, the Shadow Hand's durability is its key selling point, with the device able to endure extreme punishment, such as aggressive force and impacts.

"One of the goals with this has been to make something that is reliable enough to do long experiments," Rich Walker, one of Shadow Robots directors, said May 30 in a blog post. "If youre doing a training run on a giant machine learning system and that run costs $10 million, stopping halfway through because a $10k component has failed isnt ideal.

"Initially we said that we could try and improve the robustness of our current hardware. Or, we can go back to the drawing board and figure out what would make it possible to do the learning you need. Whats an enabling approach here?"

Related: Robot hand exceptionally 'human-like' thanks to new 3D printing technique

What exactly makes the Shadow Hand so robust isnt entirely clear: the company website states only that it is "resistant against repeated impacts from its environment and aggressive use from an untrained policy," which does little to explain the methods and materials used. But in his blog post, Walker suggested trial and error was the key to the sturdiness of the robotic hand.

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"We spent a huge amount of time and effort testing the various components, iterating the design, trying various things," Walker explained."It was a very integrated project in terms of collaboration and iterative development. The end result is something quite special. Its not a traditional robot by any means."

The Shadow Robot Company previously demonstrated an earlier robot hand at Amazon re: MARS. Shadow Hand, however, is its latest model. It has been built with precise torque control and each of its fingers is driven by motors at their base and connected via artificial tendons.

Each finger is a self-contained unit with sensors and stereo cameras simulating a sense of touch. The segments that make up the fingers are fitted with tactile sensors, and a stereo camera setup provides high-resolution, wide-dynamic-range feedback. The cameras are specifically pointed towards the inside of the surface of the silicon-covered fingertips so that they can capture the moment it touches something and convert this visual data into other types of data.

Should any of the appendages endure significant damage, they can simply be removed from the base model and replaced. The sensors can also be replaced if need be, with the internal network able to identify when a sensor has been removed and a new one added.

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Virtual Rat with AI Brain Mimics Real Rodent Movement – Neuroscience News

Summary: Researchers created a virtual rat with an AI brain to study how real rats control movement. Using data from real rats, they trained the AI to mimic behaviors in a physics simulator.

The virtual rats neural activations closely matched those of real rats, offering new insights into brain function. This innovation could revolutionize neuroscience and improve robotic control systems.

Key Facts:

Source: Harvard

The agility with which humans and animals move is an evolutionary marvel thatno robot has yet been able to closely emulate.

To help probe the mystery of how brains control movement, Harvard neuroscientists have created a virtual rat with an artificial brain that can move around just like a real rodent.

Bence lveczky, professor in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, led a group of researchers who collaborated with scientists at Googles DeepMind AI lab to build a biomechanically realistic digital model of a rat.

Using high-resolution data recorded from real rats, they trained an artificial neural network the virtual rats brain to control the virtual body in a physics simulator calledMuJoco, where gravity and other forces are present.

Publishing inNature,the researchers found that activations in the virtual control network accurately predicted neural activity measured from the brains of real rats producing the same behaviors, said lveczky, who is an expert at training (real) rats to learn complex behaviors in order to study their neural circuitry.

The feat represents a new approach to studying how the brain controls movement, lveczky said, by leveraging advances in deep reinforcement learning and AI, as well as 3D movement-tracking in freely behaving animals.

The collaboration was fantastic, lveczky said. DeepMind had developed a pipeline to train biomechanical agents to move around complex environments. We simply didnt have the resources to run simulations like those, to train these networks.

Working with the Harvard researchers was, likewise, a really exciting opportunity for us, said co-author and Google DeepMind Senior Director of Research Matthew Botvinick.

Weve learned a huge amount from the challenge of building embodied agents: AI systems that not only have to think intelligently, but also have to translate that thinking into physical action in a complex environment.

It seemed plausible that taking this same approach in a neuroscience context might be useful for providing insights in both behavior and brain function.

Graduate student Diego Aldarondo worked closely with DeepMind researchers to train the artificial neural network to implement what are called inverse dynamics models, which scientists believe our brains use to guide movement. When we reach for a cup of coffee, for example, our brain quickly calculates the trajectory our arm should follow and translates this into motor commands.

Similarly, based on data from actual rats, the network was fed a reference trajectory of the desired movement and learned to produce the forces to generate it. This allowed the virtual rat to imitate a diverse range of behaviors, even ones it hadnt been explicitly trained on.

These simulations may launch an untapped area of virtual neuroscience in which AI-simulated animals, trained to behave like real ones, provide convenient and fully transparent models for studying neural circuits, and even how such circuits are compromised in disease.

While lveczkys lab is interested in fundamental questions about how the brain works, the platform could be used, as one example, to engineer better robotic control systems.

A next step might be to give the virtual animal autonomy to solve tasks akin to those encountered by real rats.

From our experiments, we have a lot of ideas about how such tasks are solved, and how the learning algorithms that underlie the acquisition of skilled behaviors are implemented, lveczky continued.

We want to start using the virtual rats to test these ideas and help advance our understanding of how real brains generate complex behavior.

Author: Anne Manning Source: Harvard Contact: Anne Manning Harvard Image: The image is credited to Google DeepMind

Original Research: Closed access. A virtual rodent predicts the structure of neural activity across behaviors by Bence lveczky et al. Nature

Abstract

A virtual rodent predicts the structure of neural activity across behaviors

Animals have exquisite control of their bodies, allowing them to perform a diverse range of behaviors. How such control is implemented by the brain, however, remains unclear. Advancing our understanding requires models that can relate principles of control to the structure of neural activity in behaving animals.

To facilitate this, we built a virtual rodent, in which an artificial neural network actuates a biomechanically realistic model of the ratin a physics simulator.

We used deep reinforcement learningto train the virtual agent to imitate the behavior of freely-moving rats, thus allowing us to compare neural activity recorded in real rats to the network activity of a virtual rodent mimicking their behavior.

We found that neural activity in the sensorimotor striatum and motor cortex was better predicted by the virtual rodents network activity than by any features of the real rats movements, consistent with both regions implementing inverse dynamics.

Furthermore, the networks latent variability predicted the structure of neural variability across behaviors and afforded robustness in a way consistent with the minimal intervention principle of optimal feedback control.

These results demonstrate how physical simulation of biomechanically realistic virtual animals can help interpret the structure of neural activity across behavior and relate it to theoretical principles of motor control.

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Google DeepMind’s Head of Comms says integrating AI is ‘starting with the things you don’t like’ – HR Grapevine

HR Grapevine

As this week draws to a close, another year of the CIPDs Festival of Work also comes to an end. Many varied subjects made the 2024 agenda, but you may have guessed it, artificial intelligence, and the impact it is going to have on the future of work, was a widely discussed topic.

So important is this subject, it was given the spot of closing keynote for the two-day event. The closing speaker, Google DeepMinds Head of Global Communications & Marketing, Dex Hunter-Torricke, spoke to CIPDs CEO Peter Cheese, about the history of technological innovation and what HR practitioners can do to best prepare for an AI-oriented future.

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Bitcoin is the only decentralized currency, Tether CEO says – Cointelegraph

According to Tether CEO Paolo Ardoino, Bitcoin is unique among the more than 14,000 various cryptocurrencies because it is the only one that is not centralized.

Bitcoin (BTC) is the only decentralized currency, Ardoino said in an interview with Cointelegraph on June 13 at the Bitcoin-only conference, BTC Prague.

Bitcoin is the only example of a currency that is only ruled by math that basically cannot be changed, Tether CEO stated. Apart from Bitcoin, some cryptocurrencies are a bit more centralized, or others are a bit less centralized, Ardoino believes.

With the other currencies, you see that there is a group of developers that come every month. They are coming out with a new software release, they change the monetary policy, inflationary, deflationary, and they keep changing things, the executive noted.

On the other hand, with Bitcoin, there will always be 21 million BTC, and there will be a halving once every four years until all 21 million Bitcoin is mined. Ardoino stated:

In the interview, Ardoino admitted that his opinion on Bitcoins exclusive level of decentralization might be controversial. The CEO also mentioned that he openly said that Tether is centralized, unlike Bitcoin.

Additionally, Ardoino expressed skepticism about the record-breaking industry of memecoins, which is a type of cryptocurrency inspired by internet memes or trends. I like memes, but not memecoins, Ardoino said, adding that Bitcoin and memecoins are completely at the opposite parts of the spectrum.

Related: DeFi may struggle to stay decentralized after new EU law

One may indeed argue with Ardoino about the decentralization of Bitcoin versus other assets in the cryptocurrency market, as there is a whole sector in crypto dedicated to decentralized finance, or DeFi.

In the crypto industry, decentralization refers to the transfer of control and decision-making from a centralized entity to a distributed network. While the DeFi industry gives high promises on financial decentralization, some people in the industry, like Jan3 CEO Samson Mow, believe that DeFicannot compete with Bitcoin.

Ardoinos remarks on the decentralized nature of Bitcoin came amid the opening of BTC Prague 2024, where he is a speaker alongside major industry figures like former MicroStrategy CEO Michael Saylor, Blockstream co-founder Adam Back, Bitcoin author Jimmy Song and others. Unlike many industry events, BTC Prague is dedicated exclusively to Bitcoin.

Magazine: Bitcoin layer 2s arent really L2s at all: Heres why that matters

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Tether CEO: Bitcoin is the Only True Decentralized Currency and Meme Coins Are Worthless – – 99Bitcoins

According to Tether CEO Paolo Ardoino (the Head of USDT), Bitcoin (BTC) is the only truly decentralized cryptocurrency. Find out the truth about decentralization here.

At BTC Prague, Tether CEO Paolo Ardoino declared Bitcoin the lone decentralized king among 14,000 cryptocurrencies.

Ardoino outlined what sets Bitcoin apart in the crowded digital currency market in an interview with CoinTelegraph.

Bitcoin is the only example of a currency that is only ruled by math that basically cannot be changed, he stated.

According to the Tether CEO, Bitcoins unwavering certainty and predictability set it apart. Unlike other cryptos that see constant updates and policy shifts, Bitcoin, outside of Stacks, Ordinals,and Runes, mainly sticks to its original protocol.

With the other currencies, you see that there is a group of developers that come every month. They are coming out with a new software release, they change the monetary policy, inflationary, deflationary, and they keep changing things, Ardoino noted.

He also pointed out Bitcoins supply is capped at 21 million coins, with built-in deflationary halvings every four years until mining completes.

Courting controversy, Ardoino bluntly admitted that Tether is centralized, unlike Bitcoin

I openly say that Tether is centralized, unlike Bitcoin, he remarked.

Ardoino also didnt hold back his views on meme coins, the current crypto sensation of tokens riding on internet trends.

I like memes, but not meme coins, he said, emphasizing that Bitcoin and meme coins are at completely opposite parts of the spectrum.

DISCOVER: How to Buy Bitcoin ETF in June 2024 Beginners Guide

Despite DeFis claims of decentralization, JAN3 CEO Samson Mow agreed with Arduino that it couldnt match Bitcoins decentralization.

Yet, Bitcoin itself isnt immune to centralization; for instance, Bitcoin Cores site lists only 14 developers, with most work done by a handful.

Also, it should be noted that Bitcoin is mostly traded on centralized exchanges, which are vulnerable to crashes like FTX or Celsius.

Thats why 99Bitcoin recommends using a mix of Dex and Cex platforms, activating 2FA, and looking into hard wallets to keep control of your assets.

While Bitcoin itself is decentralized, the larger crypto world isnt immune to centralization issues. Look for more updates from BTC Prague and our coverage at Bitcoin Nashville 2024!

EXPLORE:WienerAI Rockets to $5.5m in Presale, Adds $2m in Under 2 WeeksRacing Ahead of $TURBO?

Disclaimer: Crypto is a high-risk asset class. This article is provided for informational purposes and does not constitute investment advice. You could lose all of your capital.

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Tether CEO Calls Bitcoin the Only Decentralized Currency – Watcher Guru

Tether CEO Pablo Ardoino has called Bitcoin (BTC) the only true decentralized currency. The executive of the largest stablecoin issuer, Ardoino lauded the leading asset as truly one of a kind. Moreover, he noted BTC is a token that may never be dethroned.

Speaking to Cointelegraph, Ardoino noted Bitcoin is the only example of a currency that is only ruled by math that basically cannot be changed. That reality makes it absent from any centralization. No matter the efforts of the tokens contemporaries, that aspect has become increasingly difficult to replicate.

Also Read: Tether Challenges Ripple CEO Remarks on US Targeting USDT

The stablecoin market has certainly proven its worth in recent years. Its prominence has drawn participation from companies like Ripple and others. Specifically, these firms observe the markets massive growth trajectory. The issuer of the largest stablecoin has recently discussed one asset that stands above the entire industry.

Tethers CEO has discussed why Bitcoin is in a league of its own. As far as digital assets go, their decentralization infuses them with rarity. Additionally, it doesnt suffer from an influx of updates and changes that come from developers seeking to remain at the forefront of change.

Also Read: Tether Stablecoin Expands To TON Network, Continues Growth

With the other currencies, you see that there is a group of developers that come every month. They are coming out with a new software release, they can change monetary policy, inflationary, deflationary, and they keep changing things, Adoino stated.

Conversely, the executive said BTC is about certainty. Ardoino also noted that there is unlikely to be any asset that surpasses it. The quality of its infrastructure is unable to be replicated in the current landscape. Its why the asset has remained on the market for so long.

That hasnt altered in 2024, where it still leads the industry. In March of this year, it reached an all-time high of $73,000.

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The decentralization exists only on Bitcoin for the CEO of Tether – The Cryptonomist

Yesterday, at BTC Prague, Tethers CEO, Paolo Ardoino, stated that full decentralization belongs only to Bitcoin.

He stated:

Bitcoin is about certainty. Its like a clock that keeps ticking, keeps ticking forever. When it comes to the concept of unstoppable or decentralized products because everyone uses the term decentralized there is only Bitcoin.

He also stated that he is a big fan of the 1MB limit on Bitcoin blocks, and the fact that only one is mined every 10 minutes, because this way everyone can participate. Even in the poorest country, one can easily download a block and participate.

The reference was obviously to other blockchains, which have blocks that are also much larger and above all much faster, but in this way require the nodes to download large amounts of data in a short time, effectively excluding those who have slow Internet connections.

According to Ardoino, Bitcoin is the only cryptocurrency that is not truly centralized.

He said that Bitcoin is the only example of a currency governed solely by mathematics, and that it essentially cannot be modified. The other criptovalute instead have a more or less high degree of centralization.

For example, he referred to those groups of developers who meet every month to decide whether to launch a new version of the software, whether to change monetary policy, and who in fact continue to change things.

The reference is obviously to Ethereum, which unlike Bitcoin evolves (that is, changes).

The Bitcoin protocol is practically unchangeable, except rarely and with the consensus of the community. Instead, the Ethereum protocol changes relatively often, even several times a year, and the decision on what to change, and how, is made by a relatively small group of developers, and not by the entire user community.

Moreover, it is evident and undeniable that the Bitcoin protocol changes only rarely (on average once every about 4 years), that the changes are often just additions and not real modifications, and above all that its monetary policy has never been changed. At present, it is reasonable to imagine that no one in the world is truly capable of changing it.

Instead, for example, the Ethereum protocol changes almost every year, sometimes even with profound modifications such as the transition from Proof-of-Work to Proof-of-Stake, and with a monetary policy that has already been changed several times in its nine years of existence.

If you add to this that such decisions are made by a relatively small group of developers who meet every month, the picture that emerges is certainly one of a greater degree of centralization compared to Bitcoin.

Tether, for example, is a traditional centralized company that issues tokens on Ethereum and on other blockchains.

To tell the truth, the first USDT tokens issued by Tether in 2014 were issued on Omni, a Bitcoin sidechain, but at that time the Ethereum blockchain didnt even exist, as it was created the following year.

In Tether know well what centralization is, just as any traditional company with shareholders and a CEO does.

Ethereum is actually a project carried out by a foundation, the Ethereum Foundation to be precise, which however is in all respects a centralized organization with a single executive director (Aya Miyaguchi).

Instead, behind Bitcoin there isnt even a single foundation, given that there are several centralized entities working on Bitcoin but none that actually have power over its protocol. For example, the same website bitcoin.org, often mistakenly considered as the official website of Bitcoin because it was originally created by Satoshi Nakamoto himself, actually now belongs to an independent group of contributors that does not represent Bitcoin itself.

In other words, in some ways, foundations like the Ethereum Foundation seem more similar to centralized entities like Tether than to the unorganized community of Bitcoin.

Of course, there are also several Bitcoin foundations, but there is no official one.

The speech is still different for many altcoin.

For example, behind various altcoins there are actually real companies, as in the case of USDT and Tether.

The difference lies in the fact that while it is Tether, and only Tether, that issues the USDT tokens, cryptocurrencies like BNB, SOL, XRP, TON, or ADA are actually issued by a not entirely centralized network, even though behind BSC, SOlana, Toncoin, and Cardano there are real companies that effectively manage the crypto project.

There are therefore different degrees of centralization, ranging from the maximum, represented for example by Tether, to the minimum, probably represented only by Bitcoin where it is close to zero.

There are crypto projects, such as Ethereum, that have a higher degree of centralization compared to Bitcoin, but lower than others, and there are others still, such as XRP, that have a significantly higher degree of centralization, although lower than Tether.

The highest degree of decentralization is probably only found in Bitcoin itself, behind which there is no single entity, subject, or organization that has any kind of centralized power through which it can manage its development or arbitrarily decide its evolution.

At most, there are large holders of BTC who can influence its price in the medium-short term by selling them.

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Artemis: Redefining the Future of Commerce with a Decentralized Marketplace – U.Today

In the ever-evolving landscape of digital finance, Artemis stands out not just as another cryptocurrency, but as a groundbreaking vision poised to revolutionize global commerce. With a mission rooted in empowerment and innovation, Artemis aims to create a dynamic and inclusive marketplace where vendors, sellers, service seekers, and service providers converge seamlessly.

Artemis is a commitment to empower individuals and businesses by providing a decentralized, transparent, and efficient marketplace. Traditional barriers to commerce, such as high transaction fees, middlemen, and geographical limitations, often hinder economic growth and personal financial freedom. Artemis is dedicated to eliminating these barriers, enabling direct and secure transactions between participants worldwide. This approach fosters an environment where trust, speed, and innovation drive economic freedom and growth.

1. Decentralized Marketplace

- Artemis leverages blockchain technology to create a decentralized marketplace, ensuring that no central authority controls transactions. This decentralization enhances security, reduces costs, and fosters a more equitable economic environment.

2. Secure and Transparent Transactions

- Utilizing advanced cryptographic techniques, Artemis ensures that all transactions are secure and transparent. Each transaction is recorded on the blockchain, providing an immutable and verifiable ledger of activities, thereby building trust among users.

3. Global Accessibility

- One of Artemis's core strengths is its global reach. By removing geographical limitations, Artemis opens up new opportunities for commerce, allowing participants from all corners of the world to engage in direct trade and service exchanges.

Artemisenvisions a future where economic freedom and growth are accessible to all. This vision is driven by the belief that an inclusive marketplace can unlock new potentials and drive innovation. By breaking down traditional barriers and leveraging cutting-edge technology, Artemis aims to create a vibrant ecosystem where every participant can thrive.

Seize the moment and invest in Artemis today to unlock exclusive presale benefits immediately. We believe in fast-tracking our community's success, which is why were committed to launching swiftlyno long waits, just prompt opportunities and early rewards. Investing in Artemis not only provides potential financial returns but also supports a vision of a more inclusive and efficient global marketplace.

Artemis is more than just a cryptocurrency; it is a vision for a better, more connected world. By creating a decentralized, transparent, and efficient marketplace, Artemis is set to redefine how we engage in commerce. Join us in this exciting journey and be a part of a future where economic freedom and growth are within everyone's reach.

Invest in Artemis today and be a part of the revolution. Together, we can build a marketplace where trust, speed, and innovation drive global prosperity.

For further details and to join the Artemis community, please visitArtemis and connect with social media platforms:

Telegram:https://t.me/artemis_coin

X: https://x.com/coinartemis

YouTube:https://www.youtube.com/@artemiscoin

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Bitcoin bounces at 1-month lows Watch these BTC price levels next – Cointelegraph

Bitcoin has fallen to one-month lows, and traders are ready with their BTC price targets which will come true?

The aggregate cost price of various hodlers is now coming into play as fears rise of a return below $60,000.

Bitcoin (BTC) surprised on June 14 by delivering another 3.5% dip, taking BTC/USD to $64,950 on Bitstamp.

Building on existing weakness, the move took current week-to-date losses to more than 6.7% and BTC price action to its lowest levels since mid-May, data from Cointelegraph Markets Pro and TradingViewconfirms.

Bitcoin just lost technical support at the 50-Day Moving Average, Keith Alan, co-founder of trading resource Material Indicators, wrote in part of market coverage on X.

While $65,000 managed to hold, others are looking for possible areas to call a near-term BTC price floor while new all-time highs look increasingly out of reach.

For Axel Adler Jr., a contributor to the onchain analytics platform CryptoQuant, hodlers cost bases are due to receive a new market test.

These levels, also known as realized price, refer to the aggregate buy-in price for investors hodling coins for various lengths of time.

Of particular interest are short-term holders (STHs) entities holding a given unit of BTC for up to 155 days, which represent the more speculative end of the hodler spectrum. As Cointelegraph reported, their cost basis has functioned as bull market support almost flawlessly since the start of 2023.

CryptoQuant currently shows the STH realized price to be $62,200.

Another cohort, those hodling for between three and six months, have a realized price of $55,500, while Bitcoins diamond hands, the long-term holders, have their cost basis at $24,300.

How long the correction might last will be determined by the market, but in previous cycles, similar situations lasted from 65 to 371 days, Adler commented.

Earlier, Cointelegraph reported on concerns that $60,000 may still return to the BTC/USD chart and that even this might not hold as support.

Related: 3 reasons why $65K marks the bottom for Bitcoin

Should such a scenario occur, longtime trader Peter Brandt warned, the path to as low as $48,000 will come into play.

Others are focused on shorter-term areas of interest based on exchange order book activity.Among them is popular trader Skew, who on June 15 revealed thickening bid liquidity around $62,000.

Looks like the bid wall around $65K did get partially front run here. Theres noticeably a large gap between bids and asks here, he noted about the landscape of the largest global exchange, Binance.

Data from monitoring resource CoinGlass meanwhile shows a line of liquidity at $64,900 just beneath the intraday lows increasing in size at the time of writing.

This article does not contain investment advice or recommendations. Every investment and trading move involves risk, and readers should conduct their own research when making a decision.

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