Category Archives: Quantum Computer

Quantum leap? US plans for unhackable internet may not fructify within a decade, but India is far behind – The Financial Express

Last week, the US department ofenergy released a blueprint for a nationalquantum internet. The project if successful, the government claimed, willensure a safer and nearly unhackableinternet within the next decade. Earlierthis year, the University of Chicago, oneof the participants in DoEs project, hadcreated a 52-mile quantum loop totransfer subatomic particles.

The US, however, is not the only country to be working on quantum internet.

Dutch researchers are expected to es tablish a link between Delft and the Hague later this year. In February, Chineseresearchers, in a paper published in Nature had claimed to have successfully demonstrated some success in thisregard over a 50 km range.

Last year, when Google announcedthat its quantum computer had inchedcloser towards quantum supremacy when a computer can perform tasks that are out of reach for even the mostadvanced supercomputer blockchainexperts had expressed concerns aboutthe technology as it would make it easyto break encryption. Recently, currencyexchange and payments platform, Ripples CTO said that quantum computers could pose a threat to blockchain technology and bitcoin. Given that development of quantum computers is happening at an accelerated pace, there is also aneed for a quantum internet to transferinformation without danger of hacking.

While the US experiments are laudable, all eyes will now be on the Dutchresearchers as they would also demonstrate a quantum repeater, which willhelp transport a single photon over long distances. The problem, till now, in establishing such a network has been transferring a photon. A repeater, if successful,can make this a reality.

The success, in this case, is dependenton a property of quantum particles called entanglement.

Entanglementallows two photons, when observed, at aconsiderable distance to take opposite values from each other. Albert Einsteinin a 1935 EPR paper had discussed entanglement buttermedit as a spookyphenomenon as it defied his laws on relativity. Bell later confirmed Einsteinsobservation. But using photons has beenimpossible largely because a photon cannot be cloned. Any interference destroysthe information. And, this property iswhat makes them safe as well.

But developing a point-to-point connection is quite different from creatinga network. Dr Apoorva D Patel, one ofIndias leading quantum researchers anda professor at Centre for High EnergyPhysics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru says that we are still a long wayfrom establishing a network. We wouldneed hubs, relays, standard storage anderror correction, and all this is still yearsaway. He also debunks the claims of aquantum internet within a decade. The10-year timeline is the governmentshypothesis, not the scientists hypothesis Even if it is developed, the speeds DrPatel says will be much slower, probablyby a factor of thousand, than the regular internet. And this will not improve. So, itwill have only limited application.

Besides, the system is not entirelyunhackable.The quantum transmission is unhackable, but end-points are still hackable. The sending and receiver stations are vulnerable, as at those points you are trying to convert the classical signal into the quantum signal or vice versa, Dr Patel says.

Even worse, India may only be a spectator in this quantum race. We are farbehind in terms of the quantum internet, and much more behind when itcomes to quantum computers. We arestarting from scratch, and the government will need to do more, Dr Patelhighlights.

While the government announced aplan to invest Rs 8,000 crore over the nextfive years in the National Mission onquantum technology in the Budget, nodisbursement has been made till now.

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Quantum leap? US plans for unhackable internet may not fructify within a decade, but India is far behind - The Financial Express

Google distinguished scientist Hartmut Neven is one of Fast Company’s – Fast Company

A pioneer in AI-powered computer vision, whose research helps power Google Maps, YouTube, and more, Hartmut Neven now leads Googles efforts in quantum computingthe still-emerging science that aims to transform fields as diverse as pharmaceutical discovery and financial services by manipulating subatomic particles. In October 2019, his team published a paper stating that its processor, Sycamore, had achieved quantum supremacy by performing calculations in 200 seconds that would take 10,000 years with a conventional computer. The feat wasnt without controversyquantum rival IBM contended that its fastest supercomputer would take only two and a half days to do the same, downgrading the magnitude of Googles claimbut it was still widely hailed as a landmark.

The quantum project has posed new challenges, such as how to cool a processor to near absolute-zero temperatures using liquid helium. But Neven has always thrived on the edge. He was among the first to connect the AI revolution currently in full swing and quantum advances yet to come. Im guilty of having popularized the terms quantum machine learning and quantum AI, he says. Now there are whole sections of departments at universities that do quantum machine learning.

When people ask Neven how soon quantum computers will be ready for commercial deployment in areas where their speed might be transformative, his standard estimate is 10 years. He appreciates Google giving him the runway. Theres this nerdy pleasure of pushing into disciplines that are intrinsically fascinating, he says. Not, When can we see a return on our investment? But, Hey, this sounds interesting. Sooner or later, this technology will play an important role. Why dont you explore it?'

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Google distinguished scientist Hartmut Neven is one of Fast Company's - Fast Company

Quantum physicists say time travelers don’t have to worry about the butterfly effect – The Next Web

What if I told you all your favorite time-travel films and books were actually created by big tech in order to wrest control of the time-travel industry from the proletariat?

Think about it. Back to the Future, The Terminator, The Time Machine, all of these stories share a central theme where traveling through time is a dangerous proposition that could destroy the very fabric of our reality.

Its called the butterfly effect. The big idea is that youd step out of your time travel machine and accidentally step on a bug. Because this bug doesnt exist maybe a frog goes hungry and dies. And maybe that frog was supposed to hop on a sabre-tooth tigers face at exactly the right moment so the cave person from which our greatest leader will descend can escape death.

But you just had to time travel didnt you? Now, because that bug is dead, the cave man didnt live and our planet is a nuclear wasteland when you return to the present.

[Read:This quantum physics breakthrough could be the origin story for time travel]

Speaking of nuclear wastelands, a team of scientists from the Los Alamos National Laboratory recently conducted a time travel simulation on IBMs quantum computer. And what they determined is that all those Hollywood fear mongers are full of it.

Per a press release from the lab, one of the studys coauthors, theoretical physicist Nikolai Sinitsyn, said:

On a quantum computer, there is no problem simulating opposite-in-time evolution, or simulating running a process backwards into the past. So we can actually see what happens with a complex quantum world if we travel back in time, add small damage, and return. We found that our world survives, which means theres no butterfly effect in quantum mechanics.

We cant actually travel back in time, but what we can do is simulate how systems react to perturbances with benefit of hindsight. And the reason we can do this is because quantum computers can travel back in time.

What makes quantum computers so special is that theyre capable of producing all outcomes simultaneously. With a classical computer, for example, we use binary bits to process data by switching resistors on and off. Quantum computers use qubits though. And qubits can be on, off, both, or neither all at the same time. So, if we want to solve a really complex problem we can run it through a quantum computer and get all the answers at once rather than running it through a classical computer multiple times with different parameters to achieve diverse predictions when an outcome is uncertain.

Thats a long-winded way of saying quantum computers can reverse-engineer the past to determine exactly how things in a given system would have unfolded had something else happened.

This doesnt mean we can finally solve the JFK assassination, that version of the past is a closed system that we currently dont have access to. But we can create an open system and give the quantum computer access to it via simulation so that it can determine all the different ways things can play out over time.

Quick take: Whats most interesting here is that the simulation itself works as a bit of a quantum mechanics detector.

We know that classical systems suffer from the butterfly effect. Dont believe me? Go back about 10 code commits and start randomly changing things and then generate new code from the flawed version and see how that works out for your next software build.

Sinitsyn and his coauthor Bin Yan tested their quantum mechanics hypothesis out with help from IBMs cloud-based Q system. Per the Los Alamos press release:

To test the butterfly effect in quantum systems, Yan and Sinitsyn used theory and simulations with the IBM-Q quantum processor to show how a circuit could evolve a complex system by applying quantum gates, with forwards and backwards cause and effect.

According to the researchers, the butterfly effect doesnt affect the quantum world so its existence can effectively determine whether a system is classical or quantum in nature.

We can certainly assume that any form of time travel involving human temporal displacement will rely on quantum mechanics unless of course we turn out to be binary constructs trapped within a simulation ourselves.

And that means, unless were in the Matrix, Marty McFly and John Connor were just propaganda meant to scare us regular folk off from using time machines at our leisure. Even Ashton Kutcher lied to us. Butterfly effect schmutterfly effect.

You can read the full study here.

H/t: ScienceAlert

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Quantum physicists say time travelers don't have to worry about the butterfly effect - The Next Web

Week in review: BootHole, RCEs in industrial VPNs, the cybersecurity profession crisis – Help Net Security

Heres an overview of some of last weeks most interesting news, articles, interviews and reviews:

Attackers are exploiting Cisco ASA/FTD flaw in search for sensitive dataAn unauthenticated file read vulnerability (CVE-2020-3452) affecting Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) and Firepower Threat Defense (FTD) software is being exploited by attackers in the wild.

Researchers find critical RCE vulnerabilities in industrial VPN solutionsCritical vulnerabilities in several industrial VPN implementations for remotely accessing operational technology (OT) networks could allow attackers to overwrite data, execute malicious code or commands, cause a DoS condition, and more.

Twitter employees were spear-phished over the phoneTwitter has finally shared more details about how the perpetrators of the recent hijacking of high-profile accounts to push a Bitcoin scam managed to pull it off. Also, three alleged perpetrators have been identified.

Review: Cyber Warfare Truth, Tactics, and StrategiesMany future battles will be fought with cyber weapons, narrowing the resources and capabilities gap that long existed between rich and poor nations. All of them can now effectively bring their enemy down.

Public cloud environments leave numerous paths open for exploitationCloud estates are being breached through their weakest links of neglected internet-facing workloads, widespread authentication issues, discoverable secrets and credentials, and misconfigured storage buckets.

62,000 QNAP NAS devices infected with persistent QSnatch malwareThere are approximately 62,000 malware-infested QNAP NAS (Network Attached Storage) devices located across the globe spilling all the secrets they contain to unknown cyber actors, the US CISA and the UK NCSC have warned.

What are script-based attacks and what can be done to prevent them?In todays threat landscape, scripts provide initial access, enable evasion, and facilitate lateral movements post-infection.

How do I select an endpoint protection solution for my business?To select an appropriate endpoint protection solution for your business, you need to think about a variety of factors. Weve talked to several cybersecurity professionals to get their insight on the topic.

Lack of training, career development, and planning fuel the cybersecurity profession crisisThe cybersecurity skills crisis continues to worsen for the fourth year in a row and has impacted 70 percent of organizations, as revealed in a global study of cybersecurity professionals by ISSA and ESG.

Bug in widely used bootloader opens Windows, Linux devices to persistent compromiseA vulnerability (CVE-2020-10713) in the widely used GRUB2 bootloader opens most Linux and Windows systems in use today to persistent compromise.

Delivering and maintaining security at the speed of digital transformationDustin Rigg Hillard, CTO at eSentire, talks about modern digital threats, the challenges cybersecurity teams face, cloud-native security platforms, and more.

Security teams increasingly stressed due to lack of proper tools, executive support93% of security professionals lack the tools to detect known security threats, and 92% state they are still in need of the appropriate preventative solutions to close current security gaps, according to LogRhythm.

How well do face recognition algorithms identify people wearing masks?The answer, according to a preliminary study by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is with great difficulty.

NIST selects algorithms to form a post-quantum cryptography standardAfter spending more than three years examining new approaches to encryption and data protection that could defeat an assault from a quantum computer, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has winnowed the 69 submissions it initially received down to a final group of 15.

Its time to tap the next generation of cyber defendersAs college graduates of the Class of 2020 enter the workforce, we welcome a new generation of cyber professionals.

Attackers have created a specialized economy around email account takeover

Things to consider when selecting enterprise SSDs for critical workloadsWe sat down with Scott Hamilton, Senior Director, Product Management, Data Center Systems at Western Digital, to learn more about SSDs and how they fit into current business environments and data centers.

Offensive Security acquires security training project VulnHubOffensive Security has acquired open source security training resource hub VulnHub. The acquisition is part of OffSecs ongoing mission to provide practical training content to aspiring cybersecurity professionals.

The distinction between human and bot behavior is becoming increasingly blurredAs consumers change their online habits, the distinction between human and bot behavior is becoming increasingly blurred, presenting cybersecurity teams with an even bigger challenge than before when it comes to differentiating humans from bots, and good bot behavior from bad.

What is privacy and why does it matter?Privacy is a basic right and a necessary protection in the digital age to avoid victimization and manipulation.

DeimosC2: Open source tool to manage post-exploitation issuesTEAMARES launched DeimosC2, addressing the market need for a cross-compatible, open source Command and Control (C2) tool for managing compromised machines that includes mobile support.

Qualys unveils Multi-Vector EDR, a new approach to endpoint detection and responseTaking a new multi-vector approach to Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR), Qualys now brings the unifying power of its highly scalable cloud platform to EDR.

New infosec products of the week: July 31, 2020A rundown of infosec products released last week.

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Week in review: BootHole, RCEs in industrial VPNs, the cybersecurity profession crisis - Help Net Security

New UC-led institute awarded $25M to explore potential of quantum computing and train a future workforce – University of California

In the curious world of quantum mechanics, a single atom or subatomic particle can exist simultaneously in multiple conditions. A new UC-led, multiuniversity institute will explore the realities of this emerging field as it focuses on advancing quantum science and engineering, with an additional goal of training a future workforce to build and use quantum computers.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded $25 million over five years to establish the NSF Quantum Leap Challenge Institute (QLCI) for Present and Future Quantum Computation as part of the federal governments effort to speed the development of quantum computers. The institute will work to overcome scientific challenges to achieving quantum computing and will design advanced, large-scale quantum computers that employ state-of-the-art scientific algorithms developed by the researchers.

There is a sense that we are on the precipice of a really big move toward quantum computing, said Dan Stamper-Kurn, UC Berkeley professor of physics and director of the institute. We think that the development of the quantum computer will be a real scientific revolution, the defining scientific challenge of the moment, especially if you think about the fact that the computer plays a central role in just about everything society does. If you have a chance to revolutionize what a computer is, then you revolutionize just about everything else.

Unlike conventional computers, quantum computers seek to harness the mysterious behavior of particles at the subatomic level to boost computing power. Once fully developed, they could be capable of solving large, extremely complex problems far beyond the capacity of todays most powerful supercomputers. Quantum systems are expected to have a wide variety of applications in many fields, including medicine, national security and science.

Theoretical work has shown that quantum computers are the best way to do some important tasks: factoring large numbers, encrypting or decrypting data, searching databases or finding optimal solutions for problems. Using quantum mechanical principles to process information offers an enormous speedup over the time it takes to solve many computational problems on current digital computers.

Scientific problems that would take the age of the universe to solve on a standard computer potentially could take only a few minutes on a quantum computer, said Eric Hudson, a UCLA professor of physics and co-director of the new institute. We may get the ability to design new pharmaceuticals to fight diseases on a quantum computer, instead of in a laboratory. Learning the structure of molecules and designing effective drugs, each of which has thousands of atoms, are inherently quantum challenges. A quantum computer potentially could calculate the structure of molecules and how molecules react and behave.

The project came to fruition, in part, thanks to a UC-wide consortium, the California Institute for Quantum Entanglement, funded by UCs Multicampus Research Programs and Initiatives (MRPI).The MRPI funding opportunity incentivizes just this kind of multicampus collaboration in emerging fields that can position UC as a national leader.

This new NSF institute is founded on the outstanding research contributions in theoretical and experimental quantum information science achieved by investigators from across the UC system through our initiative to foster multicampus collaborations, said Theresa Maldonado, Ph.D., vice president for Research and Innovation of the University of California. The award recognizes the teams vision of how advances in computational quantum science can reveal new fundamental understanding of phenomena at the tiniest length-scale that can benefit innovations in artificial intelligence, medicine, engineering, and more. We are proud to lead the nation in engaging excellent students from diverse backgrounds into this field of study.

The QLCI for Present and Future Quantum Computation connects UC Berkeley, UCLA and UC Santa Barbara with five other universities around the nation and in California. The institute will draw on a wealth of knowledge from experimental and theoretical quantum scientists to improve and determine how best to use todays rudimentary quantum computers, most of them built by private industry or government labs. The goal, ultimately, is to make quantum computers as common as mobile phones, which are, after all, pocket-sized digital computers.

The institute will be multidisciplinary, spanning physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and optical and electrical engineering, among other fields, and will include scientists and engineers with expertise in quantum algorithms, mechanics and chemistry. They will partner with outside institutions, including in the emerging quantum industry, and will host symposia, workshops and other programs. Research challenges will be addressed jointly through a process that incorporates both theory and experiment.

Situated near the heart of todays computer industry, Silicon Valley and Silicon Beach, and at major California universities and national labs, the institute will train a future workforce akin to the way computer science training at universities fueled Silicon Valleys rise to become a tech giant. UCLA will pilot a masters degree program in quantum science and technology to train a quantum-smart workforce, while massive online courses, or MOOCs, will help spread knowledge and understanding of quantum computers even to high school students.

This center establishes California as a leader nationally and globally in quantum computing, Stamper-Kurn said.

The institutes initial members are all senior faculty from UC Berkeley, UCLA, UC Santa Barbara, the California Institute of Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Southern California, the University of Washington and the University of Texas at Austin.

We still do not know fully what quantum computers do well, Stamper-Kurn said, and we face deep challenges that arise in scaling up quantum devices. The mission of this institute is to address fundamental challenges in the development of the quantum computer.

More information on NSF-supported research on quantum information science and engineering is available at nsf.gov/quantum.

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New UC-led institute awarded $25M to explore potential of quantum computing and train a future workforce - University of California

IBM and University of Tokyo team up for Quantum Innovation Initiative Consortium – SmartPlanet.com

Big Blue and the University of Tokyo launched the Quantum Innovation Initiative Consortium (QIIC) on Thursday, in an effort to bring together industry, academics, and government to push forward quantum computing in Japan.

QIIC will be housed at the University of Tokyo and have access to the IBM Quantum Computation Center, which has 20 of Big Blue's "most advanced" quantum computers, according to IBM.

Joining the consortium, as well as IBM's Q Network, will be Toshiba, Hitachi, Mizuho, MUFG, JSR, DIC, Toyota, Mitsubishi Chemicals, and Keio University.

"I believe that Japan will play an important role in implementing quantum computing technology to society ahead of rest of the world, and that industry-academia-government collaboration is necessary for this," president of the University of Tokyo professor Makoto Gonokami said.

IBM and the University of Tokyo signed an agreement at the end of 2019 that would see a Q System One, owned and operated by IBM, installed in an IBM facility in Japan. At the time, it was said to be the third in the world after installations in the US and Germany. IBM said on Thursday the installation is planned for next year.

On Wednesday, Toshiba said it would lead a Global Quantum Cryptography Communications Network research project that was commissioned by the Japanese Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Alongside Toshiba, NEC, Mitsubishi Electric, Furukawa Electric, Hamamatsu Photonics, University of Tokyo, Hokkaido University, Yokohama National University, Gakushuin University, the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Technology, and the National Institute of Materials and Technology will be involved in the project.

The project is set to run until the end of the 2024 financial year and will look to create a network of 100 quantum cryptographic devices and 10,000 users. Four areas of research have been identified: Quantum communication link technology; trusted node technology to ensure cryptographic keys are tamper resistant; quantum relay technology; and WAN construction and operation.

Toshiba said the project has a planned budget of 1.44 billion yen for its first year.

Elsewhere, the European arm of Japanese giant Fujitsu said it has signed up BBVA, Spain's second largest bank, for a proof of concept involving its digital annealer technology.

The annealer will be used to optimise asset portfolios and minimise risk.

"Finding the optimal selection from just 20 stocks generates the equivalent of over one quintillion (10 18) permutations," Fujitsu said. "Because of this complexity, portfolio optimisation has traditionally been a manual task, guided more frequently by guesswork than empirical data -- simply because the convoluted calculations far exceed the capabilities of regular computers."

"However, Fujitsu's digital annealer has been designed to process exactly this sort of complex combinatorial problem in just minutes."

The bank also intends to use the annealer to determine when is the best time to buy or sell assets, Fujitsu added.

"While true quantum computing as a technology is still in the laboratory testing phase, digital annealer represents a bridge to this future technology, thanks to its ability to evaluate multiple different combinations extremely rapidly," CTO for Fujitsu in Span Carlos Cordero said.

Beyond trying to define the stock market, the Japanese giant also said its annealer had previously been used to help optimise seams for welding robots in car making and find the best routes for delivery trucks. It has also been involved in helping pharmaceutical companies with discovering new substances.

UNSW offers Bachelor of Quantum Engineering degree

University says the degree will build a quantum workforce for Australia.

Q-CTRL launches service to help with cloud-based quantum computing

Meanwhile, UNSW has spun out an Internet of Things-focused security startup called CyAmst.

NEC to create hybrid quantum systems alongside D-Wave

Companies to look into developing services that combine Leap quantum annealing cloud with NEC supercomputers.

Quantum entanglement breakthrough could boost encryption, secure communications

Using quantum entanglement, a team of researchers has developed a new way to communicate via particles of light.

Honeywell claims to have world's highest performing quantum computer according to IBM's benchmark

Honeywell said JP Morgan Chase and other customers are using its quantum computer in production, which it claims is the most powerful currently in use based on a benchmark established last year by IBM.

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IBM and University of Tokyo team up for Quantum Innovation Initiative Consortium - SmartPlanet.com

The future of encryption: Getting ready for the quantum computer attack – TechRepublic

PQShield, a spin-out from the UK's Oxford University, is developing advanced cryptographic solutions for hardware, software and communications to protect businesses' data from the quantum threat.

The development of quantum computers poses a cybersecurity problem such as the IT industry has never seen before. All stored data currently deemed secure by modern standards whether that's health records, financial data, customer databases and even critical government infrastructure could, in theory, be cracked by quantum computers, which are capable of effectively short circuiting the encryption we've used to protect that data until now.

Efforts to protect our data from the quantum threat are underway, though whether the issue is being looked at with the urgency it deserves is up for debate. PQShield, a post-quantum cryptography startup spun out of Oxford University, perceives a disconnect between the scale of the threat and the current cyber-readiness of most businesses in 2020, which it is now trying to address.

SEE: Quantum computing: Myths v. Realities (TechRepublic)

"The scale of the quantum attack is just too big to imagine," Dr. Ali Kaafarani, research fellow at Oxford's Mathematical Institute and founder of PQShield, tells TechRepublic.

"The most important part of what we're doing is to educate the market."

Kaafarani is a former engineer at Hewlett-Packard Labs and leads a team of 10 full-time quantum cryptographers, from what he estimates to be a worldwide pool of just a hundred or so. The company is busy working on the development of quantum-secure cryptography encryption solutions for hardware, software and communications that will secure information from future risk, yet can be implemented using today's technology.

This comprises a system on chip (SoC) and software development kit that allow companies to create secure messaging applications, protected by a "post-quantum" variant of the Signal cryptographic protocol. Central to PQShield's technology is that it is designed to work with both legacy systems as well as those expected in the years to come, meaning it could offer protection for everything from keyless cars and other connected devices, to data moving to and from cloud servers.

This, Kaafarani explains, is important owing to the fact that post-quantum cryptography cannot be retrospectively implemented meanwhile data encrypted by modern standards remains open to post-quantum threats. "What we're using right now as end-to-end encryption...is secure now, but people can intercept them and steal encrypted data," he says.

"Once they have access to a quantum computer, they can decrypt them, so confidentiality is threatened in retrospect, because whatever is considered confidential now can be decrypted later on."

Kaafarani also perceives an issue with the current attitudes to remediating cyberattacks, which he likens to applying a band-aid to a repeating problem.

SEE: SSL Certificate Best Practices Policy (TechRepublic Premium)

"That's why we started PQShield to fill in this gap, to lead the way to a smooth and secure transition to the quantum era. There is a real opportunity here to get things right from the beginning."

The startup recently completed a 5.5m funding round led by VC Firm Kindred Capital and has now secured German engineering company Bosch as its first OEM customer. While the exact details of the deal are still under wraps, Kaafarani says the deal is indicative of the threats businesses are beginning to identify as the age of quantum computing approaches.

"Their hardware may be built to last, but right now, their security isn't," he says.

"If you're designing a car that's going to go on the roads in the next three years, if you're doing security by design, you should be thinking of the next security standards: not the standards that are valid now, but the standards that will be valid in the next five, 10, 15 years," he says.

"Future-proofing is an imperative, just as it is for the banks and agencies that hold so much of our sensitive data."

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The future of encryption: Getting ready for the quantum computer attack - TechRepublic

‘Butterfly effect’ is wrong and reality can ‘heal itself’, quantum scientists find in time travel experiment – The Independent

Scientists have disproved the butterfly effect at the quantum level, refuting the idea that changes made in the past would have grave ramifications upon returning to the present.

In the simulation, a piece of information is simulated to be sent backwards in time. That information is then damaged. However, when the information returns to the present it is largely unaltered and, counter-intuitively, with travels further into the past the final piece of information returns with less damage.

Such an effect only works in quantum mechanics, in simulations conducted via quantum computers, because time travel is not yet possible.

Sharing the full story, not just the headlines

On a quantum computer, there is no problem simulating opposite-in-time evolution, or simulating running a process backwards into the past, said Nikolai Sinitsyn, a theoretical physicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a statement.

We can actually see what happens with a complex quantum world if we travel back in time, add small damage, and return. We found that our world survives, which means there's no butterfly effect in quantum mechanics.

To test the butterfly effect, the researchers used an IBM-Q quantum processor with quantum gates, which simulate forwards and backwards cause and effect.

Standard computers and processors use bits in their chips, which exist in two positions - either on or off which is the makeup of binary.

Quantum computers use qubits rather than bits, which can be both be on and off simultaneously, as well as somewhere in between.

In the simulation, a person sends a qubit back in time. An intruder in the past measures the qubit, which disturbs it and changes its quantum correlations.

This is because even slight contact between an atom exhibiting quantum behaviour and another atom will immediately move the atom out of its quantum state.

The simulation is then run forward, to bring the qubit to the present day. It was found that, rather than the information being unrecoverable due to extrapolation of the small inciting incident the act of stepping on a butterfly in the common metaphor it was protected from minor tampering.

We found that the notion of chaos in classical physics and in quantum mechanics must be understood differently, Sinitsyn said.

The discovery could be used to hide information converting it from its initial state into one of quantum entanglement and could also be used to test quantum devices.

Since the lack of butterfly effect exists in quantum mechanics, if the simulation is run and the result is different it would prove that the quantum processor is not working effectively.

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'Butterfly effect' is wrong and reality can 'heal itself', quantum scientists find in time travel experiment - The Independent

Research: the butterfly effect does not exist in the quantum model – FREE NEWS

Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory used a quantum computer and simulated a time travel model. They found that the butterfly effect did not exist in their experiment.

The researchers used a quantum computer to simulate time travel and showed that there is no butterfly effect in the quantum model. They used quantum bits and sent them to a simulated past. In this case, one of the bits was damaged during sending, but it did not damage other bits that were sent along with them.

The simulation involved two hypothetical humans, Alice and Bob, each with a qubit a quantum bit of information. During the experiment, Alice sent her qubit to the past, but at some point, Bob intervened in it and changed the information in it. However, despite the changes, Alice was able to recover the information when the qubit returned.

This way we can really see what happens to the complex quantum world if we travel through time, add a little damage and come back. We found that this does not harm the present, which means there is no butterfly effect in quantum mechanics.

Nikolay Sinitsyn, co-author of the work

The researchers repeated the experiment and found that simulating the return of a qubit to the past and inflicting damage on it has little or no effect on the information it carries. This effect can be applied in areas where quantum devices must carry secret information. Data can be hidden by transforming the original state into a confusing one.

We found that even if an attacker manipulates in a highly entangled state, we can still easily recover useful information since this damage does not increase with decoding, the scientists noted.

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Research: the butterfly effect does not exist in the quantum model - FREE NEWS

Solving problems by working together: Could quantum computing hold the key to Covid-19? – ITProPortal

Given the enormous potential for quantum computing to change the way we forecast, model and understand the world, many are beginning to question whether it could have helped to better prepare us all for a global pandemic such as the Covid-19 crisis. Governments, organisations and the public are continuing the quest for answers about when this crisis will end and how we can find a way out of the current state of lockdown, and we are all continuing to learn through incremental and experimental steps. It certainly seems plausible that the high compute simulation capabilities of our most revolutionary technology could hold some of the answers and enable us to respond in a more coherent and impactful way.

Big investments have already been made in quantum computing, as countries and companies battle to create the first quantum supercomputer, so they can harness the power of this awesome technology. The World Economic Forum has also recognised the important role that this technology will play in our future, and has a dedicated Global Future Council to drive collaboration between public and private sector organisations engaged in the development of Quantum Computing. Although its unlikely to result in any overnight miracles, its understandable that many are thinking about whether these huge efforts and investments can be turned towards the mutual challenge we face in finding a solution to the Covid-19 pandemic.

There are already some ground-breaking use-cases for quantum computing within the healthcare industry. Where in the past some scientific breakthroughs such as the discovery of penicillin came completely by accident, quantum computing puts scientists in a much stronger position to find what they were looking for, faster. Quantum raises capacity to such a high degree that it would be possible to model penicillin using just a third of the processing power a classical computer would require to do the job meaning it can do more with less, at greater speed.

In the battle against Covid-19, the US Department of Energys Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is already using quantum supercomputers in its search for drug compounds that can treat the disease. IBM has also been using quantum supercomputers to run simulations on thousands of compounds to try and identify which of them is most likely to attach to the spike that Covid-19 uses to inject genetic material into healthy cells, and thereby prevent it. It has already emerged with 77 promising drugs that are worth further investigation and development progress that would have taken years if traditional computing power had been used.

Other businesses are likely to be keen to follow in the footsteps of these examples, and play their own part in dealing with the crisis, but to date its only been the worlds largest organisations that have been using quantum power. At present, many businesses simply dont have the skills and resources needed to fabricate, verify, architect and launch a large-scale quantum computer on their own.

It will be easier to overcome these barriers, and enable more organisations to start getting to work with quantum computing, if they open themselves up to collaboration with partners, rather than trying to go it alone. Instead of locking away their secrets, businesses must be willing to work within an open ecosystem; finding mutually beneficial partnerships will make it much more realistic to drive things forward.

The tech giants have made a lot of early progress with quantum, and partnering with them could prove extremely valuable. Google, for example, claims to have developed a machine that can solve a problem in 200 seconds that would take the worlds fastest supercomputer 10,000 years imagine adding that kind of firepower to your computing arsenal. Google, IBM and Microsoft have already got the ball rolling by creating their own quantum partner networks. IBM Q and Microsoft Quantum Network bring together start-ups, universities, research labs, and Fortune 500 companies, enabling them to enjoy the benefits of exploring and learning together. The Google AI quantum initiative brings together strong academia support along with start-up collaboration on open source frameworks and tools in their lab. Collaborating in this manner, businesses can potentially play their own part in solving the Covid-19 crisis, or preventing future pandemics from doing as much damage.

Those that are leading the way in quantum computing are taking a collaborative approach, acknowledging that no one organisation holds all the answers or all the best ideas. This approach will prove particularly beneficial as we search for a solution to the Covid-19 crisis: its in everyones interests to find an exit to the global shutdown and build knowledge that means we are better-prepared for future outbreaks.

Looking at the bigger picture, despite all the progress that is being made with quantum, traditional computing will still have an important role to play in the short to medium term. Strategically, it makes sense to have quantum as the exploratory left side of the brain, while traditional systems remain in place for key business-as-usual functions. If they can think about quantum-related work in this manner, businesses should begin to feel more comfortable making discoveries and breakthroughs together. This will allow them to speed up the time to market so that ideas can be explored, and new ground broken, much faster than ever before and thats exactly what the world needs right now.

Kalyan Kumar, CVP & CTO, IT Services, HCL Technologies

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Solving problems by working together: Could quantum computing hold the key to Covid-19? - ITProPortal