Category Archives: Cloud Hosting
Global Cloud Hosting Service Market Analysis highlights the impact of Covid-19 (2020-2025) | Top Players like A2 Hosting, SiteGround, InMotion,…
According to the report published by Zeal Insider, the Global Cloud Hosting Service Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 2026 generated $xx.xx billion in 2016, and is estimated to reach $xx.xx billion by 2023, registering a CAGR of xx.xx% from 2017 to 2023. The report offers an extensive analysis of the changing market dynamics, key winning strategies, business performance, major segments, and competitive scenario.
Global Cloud Hosting Service market research report includes reliable economic, international, and country-level forecasts and analysis to provide holistic view on Cloud Hosting Service market. It also offers complete analysis on competitive market and thorough analyses of the supply chain to make understand users about the changing market trends. This will help them to offer products and services to their customers according to the changing needs.
Major companies listed in the market includes:
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Segmentation of Cloud Hosting Service Market:
Market, By Types:
Market, By Applications:
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Regional break-out of Cloud Hosting Service Market includes:
Research Methodology used by our research team:
Cloud Hosting Service market report has used top-down and bottom-up approach to make a complete report on Cloud Hosting Service market. Further, it has used reliable data from trusted sources to evaluate and validate the size of the entire market along with its sub-markets. Various qualitative as well as quantitative research has been conducted to analyze Cloud Hosting Service market thoroughly. Key players involved in the manufacturing of Cloud Hosting Service market are identified through secondary survey and on that basis, maximum shareholding companies are identified and profiled in the Cloud Hosting Service market report.
In order to make Cloud Hosting Service market report more effective and consistent, our research team has conducted some primary research by interviewing some key sources of supply chain. This provide us with qualitative and quantitative information related to Cloud Hosting Service market. Our key sources are industry participants, subject matter specialists from key companies, and consultants from several major companies and organizations involved in Cloud Hosting Service market.
Further, secondary research is done by our experts so as to obtain key information on various parameters of the market. It comprises industrial dynamics which affects the growth of Cloud Hosting Service market, major players, segmentation, SWOT analysis, value chain analysis, along with some major changes in the market in terms of new policy, technological advancements, some mergers or acquisitions of major players, etc. Secondary data was collected and analyzed to reach the total market size, which is then verified by the first survey.
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Global Cloud Hosting Service Market report include following key points:
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Major Highlights of Cloud Hosting Service market in Covid-19 pandemic covered in report:
The report provides impact of COVID-19 on Cloud Hosting Service market along with its impact on overall industry and economy of world. Further, it adds changes in consumer buying behavior as it impacts majorly on market growth and sales. Distributors and traders on marketing strategy analysis focusing on region wise needs in covid-19 pandemic is also added in the Cloud Hosting Service market report. The last segment of COVID-19 impact chapter include recovery and major changes opted by major players involved in Cloud Hosting Service market.
We at Zeal Insider aim to be global leaders in qualitative and predictive analysis as we put ourselves in the front seat for identifying worldwide industrial trends and opportunities and mapping them out for you on a silver platter. We specialize in identifying the calibers of the markets robust activities and constantly pushing out the areas which allow our clientele base in making the most innovative, optimized, integrated and strategic business decisions in order to put them ahead of their competition by leaps and bounds. Our researchers achieve this mammoth of a task by conducting sound research through many data points scattered through carefully placed equatorial regions.
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Anti-government website hosted in Montreal shut down after promoting armed protests in U.S. – CBC.ca
An anti-government website that was promotingarmed protests inthe United States ahead of the presidential inaugurationwas shut down by the company hosting its cloud servers Wednesday morning after CBC News revealed those servers were located in Montreal.
The website, Tree of Liberty, claimedto be the "press platform" for the Boogaloo movement, whose followers are radical pro-gun advocates who embrace the idea of a second American Civil War which they call the boogaloo.
Along list of Boogaloo followers have been charged with a litany of violent offences, including murder, attempted murder and opening fire on police officers.
Facebook sought to ban the movement over the summer, saying it supported "violence against civilians, law enforcement, and government officials and institutions." It took down several thousand accounts andblocked Boogaloo-related search words.
Since September,Tree of Liberty washosted by the Montreal servers of OVH, a multinational cloud computing company headquartered in France.
On Tuesday,OVHsaidit was investigating the site. After CBC News revealed the location of the servers, the company issued a follow-up statement, sayingthe site had been suspended and "the contract with the client terminated."
Tree of Liberty's original URL is no longer working.
While the site was still live,Tree of Liberty suggested to its users that they could evade law enforcement surveillance because the website is hosted outside of the U.S.
In one recent comment, a user said he had likely been identified as a "potential terrorist threat" because of his political beliefs and that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security was monitoring his online activity.
The moderator sought to assure him, saying the site is "hosted outside of the DHS's data jurisdiction," adding, "This is a safe place."
In an email to CBC News, an unidentified website moderator wrote that "rental of the server was simply more cost effective in Canada." Subsequent emails to the moderator have not been answered.
Boogalooers are among several groups planning to hold demonstrations ahead of the inauguration ceremony on Jan. 20, when Joe Biden will officially take over the presidency from Donald Trump.
Following the Jan. 6 riot at the U.S. Capitol by pro-Trump extremists that took place as lawmakers were inside voting to certify Biden's victory, there are widespread concerns in the U.S. about the prospect of further violence by groups who reject the results of the Nov. 3 election.
The FBI, according to several media outlets, has warned local law enforcement to prepare for armed protests that may be attended by far-right extremists.
A moderator's account on the Tree of Liberty website was encouraging supporters to bring firearms to protests scheduled to take place on Sunday in all 50 state capitals.
"This will be a chance for Americans young and old to physically demonstrate to the world the massive amount of armed citizens in this country," readone post promoting the protests.
In the comments section, one person wrote that peaceful protest was not enough and that executions were necessary to solve problems in the U.S.
WATCH: FBI warns violence is brewing ahead of Biden's inauguration:
Since the siege in Washington, D.C., during which five people died, technology companies in the U.S. have once again been purging their platforms of content linked to radical groups.
Notably, Amazon barred Parler a social media platform popular with Trump supporters and far-right extremists from using its cloud-based web-hosting service.
The Tree of Liberty website came online in the fall, after Facebook and other social media sites tried to scrub their platforms of Boogaloo-related content.
Experts who monitor hate groups in the U.S. speculated the site was an attempt to stabilize the Boogaloomovement's online presencewhile also trying to soften its image and provide a gateway for new followers.
"It seems to be trying to professionalize the movement's communications," said Megan Squire, a computer science professor at Elon University in North Carolina who specializes in the online behaviour of extremist groups.
Squire said it's unclear how representative the website was, given that Boogalooers prefer non-hierarchical and more individualistic modes of organizing.
The Boogaloo movement is difficult to characterize politically. Within the online world of the radical right, the term "boogaloo," taken from the 1984 film Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo, generally refers to civil war.
Some white supremacists affiliate with the movement as a means of accelerating a race war. Yet some Boogalers made headlines over the summer for attending Black Lives Matter protests.
On the Tree of Liberty website, Boogalooers distanced themselves from Trump supporters, though many maintain contrary to evidence that the election was rigged and the riot in Washington was perpetrated by left-wing activists.
"Because they are so ideologically fluid, they are able to attract a wider range of extremists," said Alex Friedfeld, a researcher of extremist groups with the New York-based Anti-Defamation League.
It is not ideas but the prospect of violence that appeals to its supporters, he said.
"Any company that is hosting this type of content should absolutely take a hard look at what they are allowing to spread," Friedfeld said prior to the website going dark.
In January 2021, Donald Trump was permanently banned from Twitter and temporarily banned from Facebook. Now that Amazon has dropped the conservative / alt-right social media platform Parler from its web hosting services, Trump supporters have been forced to congregate elsewhere if they want to continue their "free speech" without moderation. Among the most popular options at the moment is Gab.
But what is Gab, exactly? And who owns it?
To put it simply, Gab is a social media platform. The key difference between Gab and Facebook or Twitter is that, like Parler did, it "champions free speech" meaning there's little to no moderation for posting things that would get you banned by most social media platforms.
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In light of Amazon removing Parler from its cloud hosting service on Jan. 11, the alt-right is seeking another platform with similarly relaxed rules. Which is why Gab has been flooded with activity from both new and existing users.
"We believe that the future of online publishing is decentralized and open," a description on Gab's website reads. "We believe that users of social networks should be able to control their social media experience on their own terms, rather than the terms set down by Big Tech."
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Gab isn't a new social media platform it was actually launched back in 2016. And although there were efforts to shut down Gab in 2018 after it was discovered the suspected gunman in the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting who killed 11 people posted on the service, it has remained up and running.
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If you visit Gab's website, you'll see that much like any other social media platform, you can browse content anonymously. But you'll need to create an account in order to actively participate. Once you do that, the setup is sort of like a mashup of Twitter and Facebook.
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Because of Gab's relaxed rules, conspiracy theories, misinformation, and antisemitism often thrive unchecked and consequently, so do groups like QAnon.
Gab is happy to announce that we will be welcoming all QAnon accounts across our social network, news, and encrypted chat platforms, founder and CEO Andrew Torba wrote in October 2020, when Facebook banned accounts connected to the conspiracy group. ... Members of the QAnon community have been active on Gab for several years. We have never seen any calls for violence, threats, or any other illegal activity from this group of people.
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Gab was created by a man from Scranton, Pa., Andrew Torba, who formerly worked in Silicon Valley. Evidently, he saw the need for the service after reading a (disputed) report that Facebooks trending topics could be biased against conservatives, according to The Washington Post.
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I didnt set out to build a conservative social network by any means. But I felt that it was time for a conservative leader to step up and to provide a forum where anybody can come and speak freely without fear of censorship, Torba told the publication in 2016. Every major communication outlet, every major social network, is run, owned, controlled and operated by progressive leaders, progressive workers in Silicon Valley.
On Jan. 13, Gab tweeted that over the previous four days it had experienced 51 million visits, 91 million page views, and 1.7 million new users.
Global Cloud Hosting Service Market Overview, Boost Growth, Future Expectations, Key Developments And Forecast Till 2027 | Company1, Company2,…
TheCloud Hosting Service Marketsteadily escalating demand due to improving purchasing power is projected to bode well for the global market.WMRlatest publication, Titled Cloud Hosting Service Market Research Report 2021,offers an insightful take on the drivers and restraints present in the market.Cloud Hosting Service market research reportprovides detailed information on the following aspects:industry size, share, growth, segmentation, manufacturers and progress, main trends, market drivers, challenges, standardization, deployment models, opportunities, strategies, future roadmaps, and Annual forecast till 2027, etc.The report also helps you understand the dynamic structure of the Cloud Hosting Service market by identifying and analyzing market segments.
The worldwide Cloud Hosting Service industry2021 research report has described Forecasted Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in terms of % value for a specified period, it will clearly help the user to take their decision depending on the futuristic chart including key players in worldwide Cloud Hosting Service Market. The report profiles some of the key players in the global Cloud Hosting Service Market and provides insightful information about the Cloud Hosting Service industry, such as business overview, Cloud Hosting Service Market product segmentation, revenue segmentation, and latest developments.
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Our analysts monitoring the situation across the globe explains that the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers to post the COVID-19 crisis.The report aims to provide an additional illustration of the latest scenario, economic slowdown, and COVID-19 impact on the overall industry.
Note: The worldwide market reports subscription helps clients understand theongoingmarket trends,identifyopportunities, and make informed decisions through the reports in the Subscription Platform. The Industry reports available in the subscriptionprovidean in-depth analysis of various market topics and enable clients to line up remunerative opportunities. The reportsprovidethe market size & forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more.
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Geographically Regions Analysis:
This report forecasts revenue growth at the global, regional, and local levels and provides an analysis of the most recent industry trends from 2021 to 2027 in each of the segments and sub-segments. Some of the major geographies included in the market are given below:
Impact of COVID-19:
The industry is mainly driven by increasing financial incentives and regulatory support from governments around the world. The current Cloud Hosting Service market is mainly affected by COVID-19 pandemic. Most projects in China, the United States, Germany, and South Korea have been postponed. These companies are facing short-term operational problems due to supply chain constraints and the inaccessibility of factories due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Due to the pandemic impact in China, Japan, and India, the spread of COVID-19 is expected to severely affect the Asia-Pacific region.
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What market dynamics does this report cover?The report shares key insights on:
Worldwide Market Reports is your one-stop repository of detailed and in-depth market research reports compiled by an extensive list of publishers from across the globe. We offer reports across virtually all domains and an exhaustive list of sub-domains under the sun. The in-depth market analysis by some of the most vastly experienced analysts provide our diverse range of clients from across all industries with vital decision making insights to plan and align their market strategies in line with current market trends.
Explore Data Science Academy says there is a growing need for data engineering skills as a result of Microsoft and AWSsrecent investment in local data centres and tripling demand for public cloud services between 2017 and 2022.
As a result, the academy has added data engineering to its online training offerings. Payscale estimates that the average salary for a data engineer in South Africa is R441,913, moving up to around R750,000 for a senior role.
The 12-month course, which starts Monday, 18 January, will provide applicants with the specific skill set required to become data engineers a key role in the successful digital transformation of a business.
The use of vast quantities of data by data scientists now requires those with a specialised skill set to organise data and ensure its quality, security and availability to the organisation. These are data engineers, said Shaun Dippnall, CEO at Explore.
According to Dippnall apart from the skill set, there is a shortage of training courses online that offer both the content and practical application of data engineering skills required in the work place. This is particularly true of the South African market.
Course attendees will learn:
To these will be added specific data architecture skills such as:
In the digital world of today data engineering has become a specific job category as the amount of data produced by businesses engaged in digital transformation, increases exponentially, Dippnall said.
Two distinct roles
Todays businesses produce new types of data in vast quantities. While data scientists have traditionally been expected to build the necessary infrastructure and data pipelines to do their work, the volume and speed of data production has resulted in the roles of data scientist and data engineer becoming separate and distinct, he said.
It is now recognized that companies need both data scientists and data engineers in an advanced analytics team. Naturally there is frequent collaboration between the two roles but their skills sets and tools remain different.
Essentially, data engineers design and build pipelines that transform and transport data into a format so that, by the time it reaches the data scientists, it is usable.
These pipelines take data from numerous sources and collect them into a single warehouse that presents the data uniformly as a single source.
Data centre stimulus
The importance of data engineering is underscored by the fact that two of the worlds largest cloud computing hyper scalers Microsoft and Amazon have recently established data centres in South Africa.
Microsoft launched two Azure cloud data centres in South Africa in 2019 to tap into the growing demand for hyperscale cloud infrastructure and services in the region.
While Amazon Web Services (AWS) launched AWS Africa (Cape Town) Region the companys first in Africa in April last year.
According to AWS, the AWS Africa (Cape Town) Region will stimulate innovation across the country.
South African organisations from start-ups to enterprise and the public sector now have infrastructure in their country to leverage advanced technologies such as Analytics, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Database, and Internet of Things (IoT), it said.
Further, the addition of the AWS Africa (Cape Town) Region will enable companies to provide lower latency to end users across Sub-Saharan Africa.
Explosive growth expected
These critical developments by two of the worlds largest corporations underline just how important the data warehousing is in the modern digital environment, said Dippnall.
The Explore data engineering course requires applicants to have a basic analytical background and will involve 10 hours of study a week.
We at Explore have always been aware of the need to create jobs for talented and hard-working young South Africans, Dippnall said.
According to research from International Data Corporation, spending on public cloud services in South Africa will nearly triple over five years from 2017 to 2022.
Crucially for us, this study estimates that the exponential adoption of cloud services will generate 112,000 net new jobs in South Africa by the end of 2022, he said.
Read: Teraco begins work on Africas largest data centre
See the article here:
There is huge demand for this one high paying job in South Africa - BusinessTech
WASHINGTON, Jan. 11, 2021 /PRNewswire/ --Inflectra - a leading provider of software test management and enterprise-level IT portfolio management platforms, announced the expansion of its global cloud hosting infrastructure to include the Indian subcontinent. All India-based users of Inflectra's SaaS systems - SpiraPlan, SpiraTeam, and SpiraTest can now benefit from the improved speed and performance and will be in tighter compliance with existing national data protection laws (ITA 2000, SPDI & PI Rules, 2011).
"Many of our customers in India are using Inflectra's suite of software products to manage highly complex systems in regulated industries. With Atlassian's announcement of Jira Server discontinuing starting in Feb 2021, our customers are asking for more business options, including cloud hosting in India," said Adam Sandman, Director of Technology at Inflectra.
"For existing SaaS customers with operations in India, Inflectra already put out a call offering to move their instances to the new hosting facilities. For Inflectra's on-premise customers in India, help is available to migrate these instances to the cloud locally," said Thea Maisuradze, Head of Business Development at Inflectra.
Inflectra manages a cloud-hosting network that covers a variety of geographies - USA, Canada, Europe, and Australia. With no price differentiation in the company's hosting options all over the globe, Inflectra's many customers will be able to choose a hosting region that makes better business sense and still pay the standard service fees.
For more information on Inflectra's Cloud Services, please refer to the Cloud Services section on our website.
About Inflectra CorporationFounded in 2006, Inflectra is a market leader in software test management, test automation, application lifecycle management, and enterprise portfolio management space. The company is headquartered in the USA but has offices in over 10 countries. Known globally for its legendary customer support, Inflectra makes turn-key solutions that address many challenges in software testing and QA, test automation, and product lifecycle management. Its methodology agnostic software tools are used in regulated industries where portfolio management, requirements traceability, release planning, resource management, document workflow, baselining, and enterprise risk analysis are required. The company uses a concurrent pricing model for all its tools with unlimited products, projects, sprints, tests, API calls, included in a single price. All Inflectra products have a 30-day free trial.
Contact Person: Thea Maisuradze
Phone: 202 558 6885
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Inflectra Expands Its Cloud Hosting to India - PRNewswire
The Department of Education said it anticipates releasing a solicitation seeking cloud hosting, system administration, and website support and development for the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), according to a recent Beta.Sam.gov posting.
IES is an independent, non-partisan statistics, research, and evaluation arm of the Department of Education. The presolicitation notice explained IES currently maintains a virtual data center, which consists of approximately 60 virtual servers.
The department said the primary function of the data center is to host survey collection and dissemination websites in support of IES mission.
This includes web servers, database servers, a vast array of websites and data-driven web applications, a system management and web development environment, terminal servers housing analytical and statistical software, and other system support servers, the presolicitation said. Support for all aspects of IES web operations, including system administration, website administration and development, and user, staff and developer support, is provided by a team within IES which is comprised of government and contractor staff.
The Department of Education said the eventual award will require contractors that can pass high-risk background checks.
The department anticipates releasing a request for proposal at some point this month. The eventual contract will include a 12-month base period and four 12-month option periods. The department did not list the anticipated contract amount, but in a questions and answers document, Education said the contract does not have ceiling value.
ServerWhere.com (SW), the worlds premier provider of Cloud services based on cryptocurrencies, announced 10-gigabit Failover Cloud Servers, both as Private and Public IT infrastructure.
ServerWhere provisions Failover Cloud Server hosting services from various U.S. and European data centers. The Failover function offers increased IT service availability and reduces application downtime. SW provides cost-effective protection against a failure of the underlying physical infrastructure or the Cloud servers Operating System downtime. In case of an outage, the Failover server automatically restarts the server and restores workflows within less than 1 minute. All technology services delivered from the server resume automatically. There is no need for a manual server reboot.
ServerWhere.com also provisions 10-gigabit Dedicated Hosting services. The company hosts 10 Gbps the 10 Gbps connected Dedicated Servers in a data center based in London, UK.
The SWs Failover Cloud infrastructure increases technology service availability and reduces application downtime. It is a service for all U.S. and European Cloud Servers delivered by ServerWhere, active by default, at no additional cost, for all clients of the companys Public, Private & Hybrid Cloud Server services.
ServerWhere.com is a new generation Cloud Infrastructure service provider. SW increases the value of the cryptocurrencies. The company charges its customers for the IT infrastructure services it provides only in cryptocurrencies and does not use fiat currencies.
Driving down the road in a Tesla, youre essentially sitting inside an edge compute node. In our last article, we began to illustrate the degree to which edge computing and the hybrid cloud are intrinsically linked to artificial intelligence and 5G. If we look at combat vehicles, hospital systems, or even coronavirus data collection, we can see this interconnection at play. In simplest terms, edge computing and cloud hosting offer the foundation for an architectural revolution that will allow 5G to power tech of the future, AI and automation included.
In this article, we will elaborate on the potential for 5G to transform IT from the bottom-up and, most importantly, outline what this revolution means for security.
The Digitization of Everyday Life
Many people think of 5G primarily with regard to consumer communications. Cell carriers have been touting the potential for 5G, with its higher bandwidth and faster speed, to deliver more content-rich services to your smart device, from 4K video to immersive augmented reality. But enterprise 5G is an enabler of another kindone that can make machine-to-machine (M2M) communications possible. This is a far cry from 4G not just because of increased bandwidth, but because it shifts us from a closed, proprietary system to an open, virtualized one. The age of 5G is the age of dynamic, software-defined architecture.
Returning to the Tesla example, 5G makes it so the sensors on your car dont just detect a tree on the side of the road, but are in communication with the data center and other sensors (or cars) in the field. For another example use case, lets say the U.S. Forest Service is trying to see which trees in a national forest are diseased. If they deploy servers and sensors to that forest, the edge nodes that spread across its millions of acres must be able to communicate not just with the data center, but with each other. Its 5G that allows the mass amounts of data collected in the forest to be connected to AI and thus turned into real-time insights. Put another way, AI is how you transform raw data into something useful. Many apps at the edge leverage AI and machine learning. 5G underpins them.
The interplay of these cutting-edge technologies represents the next phase in the evolution of computing. We went from mainframes to PCs, from PCs to client server architecture, and from client server architectures to the cloud. As our last article outlined, the hybrid cloud comes with a paradigm shift, ushering in an entirely new operating model with an unprecedented level of flexibility. By embedding AI into this architecture, networks and services can transform in real-time based on situations edge nodes are seeing. Thus, 5G will allow agencies to deliver more smart programming to the network and the tactical edge. It will also fuel the digitization of every aspect of life. We are seeing an explosion of applications that can be rapidly deployed on this new dynamic architecture for everything from disaster response to next-generation health care.
How to Secure Dynamic Architecture
The question, of course, is what 5G means for security. Because we are no longer working with a closed, proprietary system, we can no longer rely on an old-school model of simply encrypting data and thinking we are secure. Its too limited and narrow. Compliance checklists, to be blunt, are outdated the day they are published and cannot keep up with the current threat environment. And yet, many organizations budget for compliance only. Every company that was breached in the last 15 years was compliant, though.
In a world of 5G, its not just data that must be secure, but AI algorithms and models. As such, 5G-enabled architecture requires a new security paradigm, too: a risk-based approach that considers the whole data lifecycle. Put another way, corporate security must shift from being compliance-based to risk-based. As mentioned in our last article, risk-based security should be built in from the beginningencompassing design, procurement, the supply chain, the development process, and so on. Risk should be a dial for the application as it moves out to the edge just like power, bandwidth, storage, memory, and compute.
The Bottom Line
Artificial intelligence and 5Gtwo of techs biggest buzzwordsare closely tied to edge computing and the hybrid cloud. While the underlying architecture may be more complex in this new era, software simplifies it, allowing for the rapid development and distribution of new applications. But agencies must make sure they shift their entire paradigm, security posture included. As 5G allows agencies to deploy smarter programming to the edge and make sense of growing pools of data in real-time, their security must cover the entire data lifecycle and must adapt to ever-changing levels of risk.
Of course, agencies should still leverage what they already have from a security perspective. Too often, we protect from extraordinary, sophisticated outside threats while dropping the ball on basic cyber hygiene: simple things like resetting passwords and password complexity. Many customers have capabilities for dealing with common attacks, but fail to turn that technology on. In addition to this low-hanging fruit, though, agencies must ensure their approach is risk-based, as its far better suited for cloud-native, dynamic architectures, which come with a constantly evolving threat environment.
Steve Orrin is theIntel Federal chief technology officer and Cameron Chehreh is the Dell Federal chief technology officer.
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How 5G and AI Are Creating an Architectural Revolution - Nextgov
The Slope Gets More Slippery As You Expect Content Moderation To Happen At The Infrastructure Layer – Techdirt
from the sliding,-sliding dept
What a week the first week of January has been! As democracy and its institutions were tested in the United States, so were the Internet and its actors.
Following the invasion of the Capitol Hill by protesters, social media started taking action in what appeared to be a ripple effect: first, Twitter permanently suspended the account of the President of the United States, while Facebook and Instagramblocked his account indefinitely and, at least, through the end of his term; Snapchat followed by cutting access to the Presidents account, andAmazons video-streaming platform Twitch took a similar action; YouTube announced that it would tighten its election fraud misinformation policy in a way that it would allow them to take immediate action against the President in the case of him posting misleading or false information. In the meantime, Apple also announced that it would kick off Parler, the social network favored by conservatives and extremists, from its app store on the basis that it was promoting violence associated with the integrity of the US institutions.
It is the decision of Amazon, however, to kick off Parler from its web hosting service that I want to turn to. Let me first make clear that if you are Amazon, this decision makes total sense from a business and public relations perspective why would anyone want to be associated with anything that even remotely hinges on extremism? The decision also falls within Amazons permissible scope given that, under its terms of service, Amazon reserves the right to terminate users from their networks at their sole discretion. Similarly, from a societal point of view, Amazon may be seen as upholding most peoples values. But, I want to offer another perspective here. What about the Internet? What sort of a message does Amazons decision send to the Internet and everyone who is watching?
There are several actors participating in the way a message whether an email, cat video, voice call, or web page travels through the Internet. Each one of them might be considered an intermediary in the transmission of the message. Examples of Internet infrastructure intermediaries include Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), cloud hosting services, domain name registries, and registrars. These infrastructure actors are responsible for a bunch of different things, from managing network infrastructure, to providing access to users, and ensuring the delivery of content. These mostly private sector companies provide investment as well as reliability and upkeep of the services we all use.
In the broadcasting world, a carrier also controls the content that is being broadcast; with the Internet, however, an actor responsible for the delivery of infrastructure services (e.g., an Internet Service Provider or a cloud hosting provider) is unlikely or not expected to be aware of the content of the message they are carrying. They simply do not care about the content; it is not their job to care. Their one and only responsibility is to relay packets on the Internet to other destinations. Even if, for the sake of the argument, they were to care, at the end of the day, they are not the producers of the content. Like postal and telephone services, they have the essential role of carrying the underlying message efficiently.
Over the past year, the role and responsibility of intermediaries has been placed under the policy microscope. The focus is currently on user-generated content platforms, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. In the United States, policy makers on both sides of the aisle have been considering anew the role of intermediaries in disseminating dis- and mis-information. Section 230, the law that has systematically, consistently and predictably shielded online platforms from liability over the content their users post, has been highly politicized and change now is almost inevitable. In Europe, after a year of intense debate, the newly released Digital Services Act has majorly upheld the long-standing intermediary liability regime, but, still, there are implementation details that could see some change (e.g, all of provisions on trusted flaggers).
It is the actions like the one that Amazon took against Parler, however, that go beyond issues of just speech and can set a precedent that could have an adverse effect on the Internet and its architecture. By denying cloud hosting services, Amazon is essentially taking Parler offline and denying its ability to operate, unless the platform can find another hosting service. This might be seen as a good thing, prima facie; at the end of the day, who wants such content to even exist, let alone circulate online? But, it does send a quite dangerous message: as infrastructure intermediaries can take action that cuts the problem from its root (i.e., getting a service completely offline), regulators might start looking at them to police the Internet. In such a scenario, infrastructure intermediaries would have to deploy content-blocking measures, including IP and protocol-based blocking, deep packet inspection (i.e., viewing content of packets as they move across the network), and URL and DNS-based blocking. Such measures over-block, imposing collateral damage on legal content and communications. They also interfere with the functioning of critical Internet systems, including the DNS, and compromise Internet security, integrity, and performance.
What Amazon did is not unprecedented. In 2017, Cloudflare took a similar action against the Daily Stormer website when it stopped answering DNS requests for their sites. At the time, Cloudflare said: The rules and responsibilities for each of the organizations [participating in Internet] in regulating content are and should be different. A few days later, in an op-ed, published at the Wall Street Journal, Cloudflares CEO, Matthew Prince said: I helped kick a group of neo-Nazis off the internet last week, but since then Ive wondered whether I made the right decision. Did we meet the standard of due process in this case? I worry we didnt. And at some level Im not sure we ever could. It doesnt sit right to have a private company, invisible but ubiquitous, making editorial decisions about what can and cannot be online. The pre-internet analogy would be if Ma Bell listened in on phone calls and could terminate your line if it didnt like what you were talking about.
Most likely Amazon faced the same dilemma; or, it might have not. One thing, however, is certain: so far, none of these actors appears to be considering the Internet and how some of their actions may affect its future and the way we all may end up experiencing it. It is becoming increasingly important that we start looking into the salient, yet extremely significant, differences between moderation happening by user-generated content platforms as opposed to moderation happening by infrastructure providers.
It is about time we make an attempt to understand how the Internet works. From where I am sitting, this past year has been less lonely and semi-normal because of the Internet. I want it to continue to function in a way that is effective; I want to continue seeing the networks interconnecting and infrastructure providers focusing on what they are supposed to be focusing on: providing reliable and consistent infrastructure services.
It is about time we show the Internet we care!
Dr. Konstantinos Komaitis is the Senior Director, Policy Strategy and Development at the Internet Society.
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Filed Under: aws, content moderation, infrastructure, slippery slopeCompanies: amazon, parler