Whole disk encryption, as the name implies, refers to the encryption of an entire physical or logical disk. While this is currently done mostly with software, hardware based disk encryption is a growing technology which is expected to surpass software products for whole disk encryption over the next few years. This form of encryption generally encrypts the entire contents of a disk or volume and decrypts/encrypts it during use after a key has been given. This means the data is protected from situations like laptop/disk loss or theft where the data would be encrypted and require a key to decrypt. It would not protect from situations like sending information over the network (e-mail, websites, etc) or from situations where the decryption key was already entered such as the user walking away from their logged-in computer.
When an individual wishes to encrypt a single file or group of files there are several options. Most encryption software has the ability to encrypt files individually using a password or other key. Many encryption programs have the ability to create an encrypted "virtual drive". This is an encrypted file that, when opened with the key, looks like another drive attached to the computer allowing the user to easily open and save files into an encrypted area. Some other applications, like MS Office and OpenOffice, have built-in, single-file encryption features.
This approach can protect against data disclosure on a lost or stolen computer, but only if all of the private information was encrypted. Individual file/folder encryption relies on user education and good practices to ensure that all appropriate information is encrypted.
Depending on how the encryption software is used, this approach can provide protection from data disclosure when transferring information over the network. E.g. an individual file can be encrypted and then sent as an email attachment, assuming the recipient has the ability to decrypt it.
Allowing multiple users to simultaneously access encrypted information is more complicated than a single user. The encryption software must allow the use of either multiple keys (i.e. one for each user) or a shared key (e.g. a shared password). Additionally, the software must deal with multi-user file locking issues (this is usually a problem with the virtual drive approach mentioned in the last section).
This approach can provide an additional layer of protection against the disclosure of highly confidential data on file servers in the event they are compromised. It can also help protect against disclosure on backup media as the files would remain encrypted when backed up.
This approach can get complicated if not all users have the encryption software installed, or they are not configured consistently. This could lead users being unable to access encrypted information or incorrectly believing they have encrypted information when they have not. For these reasons, special attention should be paid to how encryption software behaves and users should be educated to recognize the encryption status of files.
Encrypting information in a database can be done at a couple of levels. The application accessing the database can encrypt information before putting it into the database. This requires intelligence at the application level, but no additional database features. Many databases have built-in encryption functions which applications can use to encrypt data as it is written. This usually requires features at both the application and database level. An encryption application can sit between the application and database, encrypting/decrypting information as it is written and read. This requires buying and installing additional software, but may not require modifications to the application or database.
As mentioned earlier, some applications that arent specifically designed for encryption do have basic encryption functions. Most notably, common productivity suites like Microsoft Office and OpenOffice contain file encryption features. Be cautious of the quality of the built-in encryption features, even within the Microsoft Office product line, some versions (like Office 2007) have a good mechanism, others have poor ones (like Office 2000 and earlier) and still others require proper configuration to provide good protection (like Office 2003). These features can be very handy because they dont require additional licenses, require less training and can be effective for both in transit and at rest encryption. Additionally, they can work well for file exchange since the recipient is more likely to have the ability to decrypt the file. In short, built-in encryption functions can be convenient options, but you should research their effectiveness before using them.
There are a couple of different levels to encryption with email, first is encrypting just an attached file and second is encrypting an entire message. Encrypting an attached file can be accomplished using any single-file encryption process that "sticks" to the file. Naturally, the recipient must have a way of decrypting the file. There are only a couple of commonly used email message encryption technologies, most notably S/MIME and PGP. While S/MIME support is integrated into many email clients, it requires users to have trusted certificates which can be complicated to properly deploy. Using PGP to encrypt email requires installing software, but there are both free and commercial options.
Both of these technologies also allow for digital "signing" of email without encrypting it. This signing process allows the recipient to be certain a message was not altered in transit, but does not protect the content from prying eyes.
Encrypting information while in transit on a network is one of the most common, and important, uses of encryption. One of the most popular forms of this encryption is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS), commonly used to encrypt web traffic in transit. Any web application that transmits or collects sensitive information should encrypt the information using SSL/TLS. There are a number of other uses for SSL/TLS encryption, including securing authentication for email communication between clients and servers. SSL/TLS can also be used for "tunneling" to encrypt other forms of network transmission that dont have their own encryption features.
Another common network encryption technology is Secure Shell (SSH) which is largely used for encrypted terminal connections (replacing telnet) and encrypted file transfers (SFTP replacing FTP). Like SSL/TLS, SSH can also be used for tunneling.
A more general form of network traffic encryption is IP Security (IPSec), which operates at a more basic layer than SSL or SSH and can be applied to any network traffic. However, using IPSec requires common configuration between the two computers communicating, so it is generally used within a company/department rather than across the internet.
For wireless networks there are other encryption options that only encrypt information between the computer and the wireless access point. For this reason, they only protect from snooping on wireless and not after the information leaves the access point onto a wired network. The two most common forms are called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and WiFI Protected Access (WPA). WEP is no longer considered a secure protocol. WPA is much stronger, but has shortcomings and an updated WPA2 standard has been released which improves its security.
Read more from the original source:
Types of Encryption | Office of Information Technology
- The Senate Judiciary Committee Wants Everyone to Know It's Concerned About Encryption - EFF - December 14th, 2019
- The Defense Department Says It Needs the Encryption the FBI Wants to Break - Free - December 14th, 2019
- Congress wants to regulate encryption for big tech - The Burn-In - December 14th, 2019
- Facebook says it won't break end-to-end encryption - TechRadar - December 14th, 2019
- Encryption spat sees backdoor back-and-forth between tech firms, Congress - TelecomTV - December 14th, 2019
- Michael Hayden Ran The NSA And CIA: Now Warns That Encryption Backdoors Will Harm American Security & Tech Leadership - Techdirt - December 14th, 2019
- Large, diverse coalition of civil society groups tell the US, UK and Australian governments not to ban working encryption - Boing Boing - December 14th, 2019
- U.S. Attorney Justin Herdman of Ohio says agents need access encrypted devices, apps for the sake of public s - cleveland.com - December 14th, 2019
- Google makes it safer to text on Android phones, but end-to-end encryption is still MIA - PCWorld - December 14th, 2019
- Priti Patel bids to create end-to-end encryption apps' back door - The National - December 14th, 2019
- Encryption can't put tech giants beyond the reach of the law, Minister says - The Age - December 14th, 2019
- Chrome 79 includes anti-phishing and hacked password protection - Naked Security - December 14th, 2019
- Hardware Encryption Technology Market : Analysis and In-depth study on market Size Trends, Emerging Growth Factors and Forecasts to 2027 - Downey... - December 14th, 2019
- Encryption back on the congressional agenda - Politico - December 9th, 2019
- Police radios blocked from the public in southeast Denver metro area - The Denver Post - December 9th, 2019
- Encryption Software Market Innovations, And Top Companies - Forecast To 2029| Microsoft, Sophos Ltd., Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. -... - December 9th, 2019
- Did You Hear That? Securing Communications in 2019 | Insight for the Connected Enterprise - No Jitter - December 9th, 2019
- 'Government broke their promise': Labor seeks to amend encryption legislation - Sydney Morning Herald - December 9th, 2019
- Global Hardware-based Full Disk Encryption Market 2019 Innovation and Technological Developments, Industry Analysis & Outlook 2023 - Weekly News... - December 9th, 2019
- Privacy vs public safety - the pros and cons of encryption - World Economic Forum - December 8th, 2019
- 80% of all Android apps encrypt traffic by default - We Live Security - December 8th, 2019
- Keybase moves to stop onslaught of spammers on encrypted message platform - Ars Technica - December 8th, 2019
- Labor says it will fix encryption laws it voted for last year - ZDNet - December 8th, 2019
- Nick Clegg to be summoned to Parliament to give evidence on Facebook encryption - Sunriseread - December 8th, 2019
- This startup just solves the data privacy problem by making it possible to search encrypted data in the cloud - TechStartups.com - December 8th, 2019
- Encryption Software Market to Discern Magnified Growth During 2017-2027 - Weekly Spy - December 8th, 2019
- Millions of Private Text Messages Have Been Exposed: Here's How to Encrypt Messages on iPhone and Android - Tech Times - December 8th, 2019
- Biometric Data Encryption Device Market : Analysis and In-depth study on market Size Trends, Emerging Growth Factors and Forecasts to 2018 to 2028 -... - December 8th, 2019
- Certbot Leaves Beta with the Release of 1.0 - EFF - December 8th, 2019
- Terrific News for Android OS Users 80% Android apps encrypting traffic by default - Digital Information World - December 8th, 2019
- Hawk Security Limited Began Selling a Hardware-Protected External SSD Drive with Aes 256 XTS Military Grade Encryption - AiThority - December 8th, 2019
- Data security is falling behind as over half of FIs experience data breaches - IBS Intelligence - December 8th, 2019
- Email Encryption Market 2019, Trend, CAGR Status, Growth, Analysis and Forecast to 2025 - VaporBlash - December 8th, 2019
- Encryption Software Market 2019 Size, CAGR Status, Key Players, Growth Analysis and Forecast to 2026 - The Market Publicist - December 2nd, 2019
- Global Encryption Software Market Industry Analysis and Forecast (2018-2026) - Daily Research Stack - December 2nd, 2019
- Fortinet took 18 months to strip software of flawed crypto cipher and keys - The Daily Swig - December 1st, 2019
- Mobile Encryption Market Competitive Research And Precise Outlook 2019 To 2025 - The Market Publicist - December 1st, 2019
- NordPass: Get rid of password stress. Forever. - EE Journal - December 1st, 2019
- Apple patents anti-snooping technology that would stop police from tracking locations and messages - Stock Daily Dish - December 1st, 2019
- Encryption Software Market Research Report by Geographical Analysis and Forecast 2017-2027 - Kentucky Reports - November 28th, 2019
- Encryption Key Management Software Market : Industry Research, Growth Trends And Opportunities For The Forecast Period 2019-2029 - News Description - November 28th, 2019
- iStorage cloudAshur is named: Security Innovation of the Year at the UK IT Industry Awards 2019 - ResponseSource - November 28th, 2019
- Database Encryption Market Analysis Report by Product Type, Industry Application and Future Technology 2025 (International Business Machines... - November 28th, 2019
- The IT Guide to Enforcing Full Disk Encryption Windows Edition - Security Boulevard - November 28th, 2019
- Why The FBI's Former Top Lawyer Now Embraces Encryption - Law360 - November 28th, 2019
- Big Boom in Cloud Encryption Market over 2019-2026 with CipherCloud Inc., Hytrust Inc., Gemalto NV, IBM Corporation and more - Market Expert - November 28th, 2019
- Encrypted Flash Drives Market Size, Growth, Global Industry Analysis, Share, Segments and Forecast 2019-2024 - Space Market Research - November 28th, 2019
- Encryption Software Market 2019 Global Industry Status, Segment by Region, Type and Future Forecast To 2026 - Financial News - November 28th, 2019
- FBI worried about criminals having unfettered access to encryption technology - KTVI Fox 2 St. Louis - November 23rd, 2019
- What Is End-to-End Encryption? Another Bulls-Eye on Big Tech - The New York Times - November 23rd, 2019
- Think of the children: FBI sought Interpol statement against end-to-end crypto - Ars Technica - November 23rd, 2019
- Global Hardware-based Full Disk Encryption Market By Industry Business Plan, Manufacturers, Sales, Supply, Share, Revenue and Forecast Report... - November 23rd, 2019
- Moniker makes a statement with The Encryption EP - The Untz - November 23rd, 2019
- Global Mobile Encryption Market By Industry Business Plan, Manufacturers, Sales, Supply, Share, Revenue and Forecast Report 2019-2024 - BeetleVersion - November 23rd, 2019
- NSA Publishes Advisory Addressing Encrypted Traffic Inspection Risks - BleepingComputer - November 23rd, 2019
- Encryption Key Management Software Market Research Report: Market Analysis on the Future Growth Prospects and Market Trends Adopted by the... - November 23rd, 2019
- Microsoft Windows 10 To Natively Support DNS Over HTTPS Encryption And Obfuscation Technique Making Internet Traffic Monitoring Near Impossible -... - November 23rd, 2019
- Import EFS File Encryption Certificate and Key (PFX file) in Windows 10 - TWCN Tech News - November 23rd, 2019
- What Is Homomorphic Encryption? And Why Is It So Transformative? - Forbes - November 19th, 2019
- FBI Recruits Interpol to Condemn End-to-End Encryption - WebProNews - November 19th, 2019
- Is encryption to blame for WhatsApp snooping? - Livemint - November 19th, 2019
- BEST PRACTICES: Resurgence of encrypted thumb drives shows value of offline backups in the field - Security Boulevard - November 19th, 2019
- Astonishing Growth in Global encryption software market size was valued at USD 2.98 billion in 2018. It is projected to post a CAGR of 16.8% from 2019... - November 19th, 2019
- Encryption Software Market Overview, Latest Analysis and Future Forecast 2019 2025 - Markets Gazette 24 - November 19th, 2019
- With end-to-end encryption, we wouldn't be able to listen in even if we wanted to, says Facebook's Stan Chudnovsky - Mumbrella Asia - November 19th, 2019
- Microsoft Jumps on the DoH Train Company to Introduce Encrypted DNS - Computer Business Review - November 19th, 2019
- Global Mobile Encryption Technology Market 2018 Manufacturers, Types and Application, Analysis History and Forecast 2025 - Galus Australis - November 19th, 2019
- Hardware Encryption Market Growth Forecast Analysis by Top Manufacturers, Regions, Product Types and Application (2019 - 2026) - News Obtain - November 19th, 2019
- The Best Encryption Software for 2019 | PCMag.com - October 21st, 2019
- What is data encryption? - October 19th, 2019
- USB Enforced Encryption - Endpoint Protector - October 19th, 2019
- Authenticated encryption - Crypto++ Wiki - October 19th, 2019
- Tinder's Lack of Encryption Lets Strangers Spy on Your ... - October 19th, 2019
- 'Without Encryption, We Will Lose All Privacy': Snowden ... - October 18th, 2019
- Security pros reiterate warning against encryption backdoors - October 18th, 2019
- Encryption - servicepro.wiki - October 18th, 2019
- Mozy Encryption - October 18th, 2019
- Optical Encryption Market Size, Share, Trends and Forecast ... - October 18th, 2019
- MySQL Enterprise Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) - October 18th, 2019
- What is Encryption? - Definition from WhatIs.com - October 17th, 2019