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Learn Cloud Computing Tutorial – javatpoint

Cloud Computing tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Cloud Computing. Our Cloud Computing tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals.

Cloud Computing Tutorial with high end solution of IT infrastructure. Cloud computing is a virtualization based technology that reduces the cost of IT infrastructure. It provides a solution of IT infrastructure in low cost.

In this cloud tutorial, you will learn basics and advanced topics of cloud which is developed for beginners and professionals.

Cloud computing means on demand delivery of IT resources via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing. It provides a solution of IT infrastructure in low cost.

Actually, Small as well as some large IT companies follows the traditional methods to provide the IT infrastructure. That means for any IT company, we need a Server Room that is the basic need of IT companies.

In that server room, there should be a database server, mail server, networking, firewalls, routers, modem, switches, QPS (Query Per Second means how much queries or load will be handled by the server) , configurable system, high net speed and the maintenance engineers.

To establish such IT infrastructure, we need to spend lots of money. To overcome all these problems and to reduce the IT infrastructure cost, Cloud Computing comes into existence.

The characteristics of cloud computing are given below:

The cloud works in the distributed computing environment. It shares resources among users and works very fast.

Availability of servers is high and more reliable, because chances of infrastructure failure are minimal.

Means "on-demand" provisioning of resources on a large scale, without having engineers for peak loads.

With the help of cloud computing, multiple users and applications can work more efficiently with cost reductions by sharing common infrastructure.

Cloud computing enables the users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use e.g. PC, mobile phone etc. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.

Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, since they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places. So, it reduces the cost also.

By using cloud computing, the cost will be reduced because to take the services of cloud computing, IT company need not to set its own infrastructure and pay-as-per usage of resources.

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are provided to the users so that they can access services on the cloud by using these APIs and pay the charges as per the usage of services.

Cloud Tutorial

Types of Cloud

Cloud Service Models


Amazon EC2


Before learning Cloud Computing, you must have the basic knowledge of Operating System.

Our Cloud Computing Tutorial is designed to help beginners and professionals.

We assure that you will not find any problem in this Cloud Computing tutorial. But if there is any mistake, please post the problem in contact form.

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Standards – IEEE Cloud Computing

IEEE Standards Association

Developing Standards for Cloud Computing

The IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading consensus building organization that nurtures, develops and advances global technologies, through IEEE. We bring together a broad range of individuals and organizations from a wide range of technical and geographic points of origin to facilitate standards development and standards related collaboration. With collaborative thought leaders in more than 160 countries, we promote innovation, enable the creation and expansion of international markets and help protect health and public safety. Collectively, our work drives the functionality, capabilities and interoperability of a wide range of products and services that transform the way people live, work and communicate.

The IEEE Cloud Computing Initiative has originated two working drafts:

Cloud Computing and Standardization: Technical Reports Published

ITU-Ts Focus Group on Cloud Computing has completed its preliminary study into cloud computings standardization ecosystem and has released its FG Cloud Technical Report (Parts 1 to 7). The reports signal the conclusion of the Focus Groups study period and its findings come to form input for the cloud computing work taking place across the ITU-T under the leadership of Study Group 13 (Future Networks), overseen by the Joint Coordination Activity on Cloud Computing.

Clear industry demand for the technology and the promise of new revenues to ICT players has led to great market optimism, with one forecast predicting that global cloud IP traffic will account for more than one-third of total data center traffic by 2015. Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 20102015 (PDF, 799 KB).

Cloud Computing Program

NIST's long-term goal is to provide leadership and guidance around the cloud computing paradigm to catalyze its use within industry and government. NIST aims to shorten the adoption cycle, which will enable near-term cost savings and increased ability to quickly create and deploy safe and secure enterprise solutions. NIST aims to foster cloud computing practices that support interoperability, portability, and security requirements that are appropriate and achievable for important usage scenarios.

The NIST area of focus is technology, and specifically, interoperability, portability, and security requirements, standards, and guidance. The intent is to use the standards strategy to prioritize NIST tactical projects which support USG agencies in the secure and effective adoption of the cloud computing model to support their missions. The expectation is that the set of priorities will be useful more broadly by industry, SDOs, cloud adopters, and policy makers.

Visit NIST Cloud Computing Program at

Read NIST Special Publication 500-291, NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap, July 2011 (PDF. 1.52 MB)

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A new type of quantum computer has smashed every record …

Why it matters: As the quantum future looms closer, hundreds if not thousands of companies and research groups race towards constructing the first quantum computer that can outperform traditional supercomputers. However, the competition is not just between organizations, its also between competing methods of quantum computing.

IonQ was founded on a gamble that 'trapped ion quantum' computing could outperform the silicon-based quantum computers that Google and others are building. As of right now, it does. IonQ has constructed a quantum computer that can perform calculations on a 79-qubit array, beating the previous king Googles efforts by 7 qubits.

Their error rates are also the best in the business, with their single-qubit error rate at 99.97% while the nearest competitors are around the 99.5 mark, and a two-qubit error rate of 99.3% when most competitors are beneath 95%. But how does it compare to regular computers?

According to IonQ, in the kinds of workloads that quantum computers are being built for, its already overtaking them. The Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm, a benchmark IonQ is hoping will take off, tests a computers ability to determine a single encoded number (called an oracle) when the computer can only ask a single yes/no question.

When the algorithm is run for every number between 1 and 1023, a conventional computer gets a 0.2% success rate. IonQs quantum computer gets a 79% success rate.

After two years of work, our against-the-grain bet is paying off, IonQs CEO, Christopher Monroe, believes trapped ion quantum computing is the best bet. The IonQ System is robust and industrial strength. Even at this early stage, the results show the ion trap design has all the advantages we expected and more.

All quantum computers isolate and manipulate quantum systems to create quantum versions of computer bits, called qubits reads IonQs website. Quantum computers replace the traditional 0 or 1 logic gates processors rely on and replace them with 0 and 1 quantum gates, which are simultaneously 0 and 1 during calculations but output 0 or 1. This funky math has the potential to reinvent computing in fields like chemistry, medicine, energy, logistics and future fields like AI.

The specific 'trapped ion technology' the IonQs quantum computer relies on replaces the supercooled silicon that Google, IBM and Rigetti use with ytterbium, a silvery rare earth metal. The ionized ytterbium is suspended in an oscillating electromagnetic field, where its manipulated by engineers who program the lasers that input, store and retrieve information.

While 'trapped ion' quantum computing still has some hurdles to overcome, namely slow operation times and massive sizes, the accuracy and scalability of the technology means that IonQ will be letting companies use its computer sometime next year. Its also got a peer-reviewed journal article on the developments that will be published in the coming months.

Quantum supremacy, the moment that the best quantum computer is better than the best traditional computer, is approaching rapidly. While even IonQ will admit that they dont know what the killer app of quantum computers is yet, it doesnt seem like itll be too long before we're all taking it for granted.

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Bitcoin Technical Analysis – FXStreet

Note: All information on this page is subject to change. The use of this website constitutes acceptance of our user agreement. Please read our privacy policy and legal disclaimer.

Trading foreign exchange on margin carries a high level of risk and may not be suitable for all investors. The high degree of leverage can work against you as well as for you. Before deciding to trade foreign exchange you should carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience and risk appetite. The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss of some or all of your initial investment and therefore you should not invest money that you cannot afford to lose. You should be aware of all the risks associated with foreign exchange trading and seek advice from an independent financial advisor if you have any doubts.

Opinions expressed at FXStreet are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the opinion of FXStreet or its management. FXStreet has not verified the accuracy or basis-in-fact of any claim or statement made by any independent author: errors and Omissions may occur.Any opinions, news, research, analyses, prices or other information contained on this website, by FXStreet, its employees, partners or contributors, is provided as general market commentary and does not constitute investment advice. FXStreet will not accept liability for any loss or damage, including without limitation to, any loss of profit, which may arise directly or indirectly from use of or reliance on such information.

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Bitcoincharts | Charts

Symbol LocalBitcoins (ARS) TradeHill (ARS) ANX (AUD) Bitcoin Market (AUD) (AUD) btcmarkets (AUD) Crypto X Change (AUD) LocalBitcoins (AUD) Mt. Gox (AUD) Ruxum (AUD) TradeHill (AUD) World Bitcoin Exchange (AUD) WeExchange (AUD) Brasil Bitcoin Market (BRL) BITCOIN TO YOU (BRL) FoxBit (BRL) LocalBitcoins (BRL) Mercado Bitcoin (BRL) OmniTrade (BRL) TradeHill (BRL) Coinnest (BTC) ANX (CAD) Bitalo (CAD) Coinbase (CAD) Kraken (CAD) LocalBitcoins (CAD) LibertyBit (CAD) Mt. Gox (CAD) TradeHill (CAD) Canadian Virtual Exchange (CAD) WeExchange (CAD) ANX (CHF) LocalBitcoins (CHF) Mt. Gox (CHF) Ruxum (CHF) TradeHill (CHF) ChileBit (CLP) TradeHill (CLP) ANX (CNY) BTC China (CNY) BtcTrade (CNY) CHBTC (CNY) Jubi (CNY) Mt. Gox (CNY) RMBTB (CNY) TradeHill (CNY) (CZK) BitStock (CZK) LocalBitcoins (CZK) TradeHill (CZK) LocalBitcoins (DKK) Mt. Gox (DKK) TradeHill (DKK) Abucoins (EUR) ANX (EUR) aqoin (EUR) Bitcoin7 (EUR) Paymium (EUR) Bitalo (EUR) BitBay (EUR) Bitcurex (EUR) (EUR) Bitstamp (EUR) (EUR) (EUR) btce (EUR) Bitcoin Euro Exchange (EUR) (EUR) BTC-X (EUR) CEX.IO (EUR) GDAX (EUR) CoinFalcon (EUR) CoinsBank (EUR) Cryptonit (EUR) Crypto-Trade (EUR) EXMO (EUR) FBTC Exchange (EUR) FreshBTC (EUR) Global Bitcoin Exchange (EUR) hitbtc (EUR) IBWT (EUR) IMCEX.COM (EUR) Intersango (EUR) itBit (EUR) Justcoin (EUR) Kraken (EUR) LocalBitcoins (EUR) Mt. Gox (EUR) Ripple (EUR) The Rock Trading (EUR) Ruxum (EUR) TradeHill (EUR) Vircurex (EUR) WEX (EUR) zyado (EUR) Bitcoin Market (GAU) Bitcoin Market (GAU) ANX (GBP) Bitcoin Central (GBP) bit121 (GBP) Bitalo (GBP) (GBP) Britcoin (GBP) GDAX (GBP) Coinfloor (GBP) CoinsBank (GBP) Global Bitcoin Exchange (GBP) IBWT (GBP) Intersango (GBP) Kraken (GBP) LocalBitcoins (GBP) Mt. Gox (GBP) Ruxum (GBP) TradeHill (GBP) ANX (HKD) Bitcoin HK Exchange (HKD) LocalBitcoins (HKD) Mt. Gox (HKD) Ruxum (HKD) TradeHill (HKD) Ruxum (HUF) BitX (IDR) Indodax (IDR) Bit2C (ILS) LocalBitcoins (ILS) TradeHill (ILS) LocalBitcoins (INR) TradeHill (INR) ANX (JPY) bitFlyer (JPY) BTCBOX (JPY) (JPY) coincheck (JPY) Fisco (JPY) Kraken (JPY) Mt. Gox (JPY) Ruxum (JPY) TradeHill (JPY) Zaif (JPY) Korbit (KRW) Kraken (KRW) bitme (LTC) IBWT (LTC) Justcoin (LTC) Kraken (LTC) Bitso (MXN) LocalBitcoins (MXN) TradeHill (MXN) BitX (MYR) BitX (NGN) Kraken (NMC) Bitcoins Norway (NOK) Justcoin (NOK) LocalBitcoins (NOK) Mt. Gox (NOK) TradeHill (NOK) ANX (NZD) bitNZ (NZD) LocalBitcoins (NZD) Mt. Gox (NZD) TradeHill (NZD) TradeHill (PEN) Urdubit (PKR) Abucoins (PLN) bid extreme (PLN) Bitalo (PLN) BitBay (PLN) (PLN) Bitcurex (PLN) (PLN) Bitmaszyna (PLN) (PLN) Flucto (PLN) FreshBTC (PLN) Global Bitcoin Exchange (PLN) Intersango (PLN) LocalBitcoins (PLN) Mt. Gox (PLN) NevBit (PLN) Ruxum (PLN) TradeHill (PLN) BTCXchange (RON) (RUB) btce (RUB) (RUB) (RUB) (RUB) CEX.IO (RUB) EXMO (RUB) IMCEX.COM (RUB) LocalBitcoins (RUB) Mt. Gox (RUB) Ruxum (RUB) WEX (RUB) FYB-SE (SEK) Kapiton (SEK) LocalBitcoins (SEK) Mt. Gox (SEK) Ruxum (SEK) TradeHill (SEK) ANX (SGD) FYB-SG (SGD) itBit (SGD) LocalBitcoins (SGD) Mt. Gox (SGD) Ruxum (SGD) The Rock Trading (SLL) VirWox (SLL) LocalBitcoins (THB) Mt. Gox (THB) Ruxum (THB) Ruxum (UAH) 1coin (USD) Abucoins (USD) Allcoin (USD) ANX (USD) Bitcoin2Cash (USD) Bitcoin7 (USD) Bitcoin Market (USD) Bitcoin Market (USD) Bitcoin Market (USD) Bitcoin Market (USD) Bitcoin Market (USD) Bitalo (USD) BitBay (USD) BitBox (USD) Bitcurex (USD) Bitfinex (USD) bitfloor (USD) bitFlyer (USD) bitKonan (USD) (USD) bitme (USD) BitStamp (USD) (USD) BTC-Alpha (USD) BTCC (USD) btce (USD) (USD) (USD) (USD) BTC-X (USD) Camp BX (USD) CEX.IO (USD) GDAX (USD) CoinsBank (USD) Coinsbit (USD) CoinTrader (USD) Crypto X Change (USD) Crypto-Trade (USD) (USD) EXMO (USD) FBTC Exchange (USD) FreshBTC (USD) GetBTC (USD) Global Bitcoin Exchange (USD) hitbtc (USD) IBWT (USD) IMCEX.COM (USD) Indacoin (USD) Intersango (USD) itBit (USD) Justcoin (USD) Kraken (USD) (USD) LocalBitcoins (USD) LibertyBit (USD) Mt. Gox (USD) OKCoin (USD) Ripple (USD) The Rock Trading (USD) Ruxum (USD) TradeHill (USD) TradeHill (USD) Vircurex (USD) WeExchange (USD) WEX (USD) LocalBitcoins (VEF) SurBitcoin (VEF) LocalBitcoins (VES) LocalBitcoins (VND) Remitano (VND) VBTC (VND) Justcoin (XRP) Kraken (XRP) Ripple (XRP) Snowcoin (XRP) BitX (ZAR) LocalBitcoins (ZAR) Ruxum (ZAR) TradeHill (ZAR)

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Chart Type None CandleStick Closing Price Median Price OHLC Typical Price Weighted Close Price Band None Bollinger Band Donchian Channel Envelop (SMA 20 +/- 10%)

Moving Averages None Simple Exponential Triangular Weighted None Simple Exponential Triangular Weighted

Technical Indicators large indicators None Accumulation/Distribution Aroon Oscillator Aroon Up/Down Avg Directional Index Avg True Range Bollinger Band Width Chaikin Money Flow Chaikin Oscillator Chaikin Volatility Close Location Value Commodity Channel Index Detrended Price Osc Donchian Channel Width Ease of Movement Fast Stochastic MACD Mass Index Momentum Money Flow Index Neg Volume Index On Balance Volume Performance % Price Oscillator % Volume Oscillator Pos Volume Index Price Volume Trend Rate of Change RSI Slow Stochastic StochRSI TRIX Ultimate Oscillator Volume William's %R None Accumulation/Distribution Aroon Oscillator Aroon Up/Down Avg Directional Index Avg True Range Bollinger Band Width Chaikin Money Flow Chaikin Oscillator Chaikin Volatility Close Location Value Commodity Channel Index Detrended Price Osc Donchian Channel Width Ease of Movement Fast Stochastic MACD Mass Index Momentum Money Flow Index Neg Volume Index On Balance Volume Performance % Price Oscillator % Volume Oscillator Pos Volume Index Price Volume Trend Rate of Change RSI Slow Stochastic StochRSI TRIX Ultimate Oscillator Volume William's %R None Accumulation/Distribution Aroon Oscillator Aroon Up/Down Avg Directional Index Avg True Range Bollinger Band Width Chaikin Money Flow Chaikin Oscillator Chaikin Volatility Close Location Value Commodity Channel Index Detrended Price Osc Donchian Channel Width Ease of Movement Fast Stochastic MACD Mass Index Momentum Money Flow Index Neg Volume Index On Balance Volume Performance % Price Oscillator % Volume Oscillator Pos Volume Index Price Volume Trend Rate of Change RSI Slow Stochastic StochRSI TRIX Ultimate Oscillator Volume William's %R None Accumulation/Distribution Aroon Oscillator Aroon Up/Down Avg Directional Index Avg True Range Bollinger Band Width Chaikin Money Flow Chaikin Oscillator Chaikin Volatility Close Location Value Commodity Channel Index Detrended Price Osc Donchian Channel Width Ease of Movement Fast Stochastic MACD Mass Index Momentum Money Flow Index Neg Volume Index On Balance Volume Performance % Price Oscillator % Volume Oscillator Pos Volume Index Price Volume Trend Rate of Change RSI Slow Stochastic StochRSI TRIX Ultimate Oscillator Volume William's %R

Options Show Volume BarsVolume in CurrencyParabolic SARLog ScalePercentage Scale

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Encryption – Investopedia

What is Encryption

Encryption is a means of securing digital data using an algorithm and a password, or key. The encryption process translates information using an algorithm that turns plain text unreadable. When an authorized user needs to read the data, they may decrypt the data using a binary key.

Encryption is an important way for individuals and companies to protect sensitive information from hacking. For example, websites that transmit credit card and bank account numbers should always encrypt this information to prevent identity theft and fraud.

Encryption strength depends on the length of the encryption security key. In the latter quarter of the 20th century, web developers used either 40 bit encryption, which is a key with 240 possible permutations, or 56 bit encryption. However, by the end of the century hackers could break those keys through brute-force attacks. This led to a 128 bit system as the standard encryption length for web browsers.

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a protocol for data encryption created in 2001 by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. AES uses a 128 bit block size, and key lengths of 128, 192 and 256 bits.

AES uses a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data. Asymmetric-key algorithms use different keys for the encryption and decryption processes.

Today, 128-bit encryption is standard but most banks, militaries and governments use 256-bit encryption.

In May of 2018, the Wall Street Journal reported that despite the importance and accessibility of encryption, many corporations still fail to encrypt sensitive data. By some estimates, companies encryped only one-third of all sensitive corporate data in 2016, leaving the remaining two thirds sensitive to theft or fraud.

Encryption makes it more difficult for a company to analyze its own data, using either standard means or artificial intelligence. Speedy data analysis can sometimes mean the difference between which of two competing companies gains a market advantage, which partly explains why companiesresist encrypting data.

Consumers should understand that encryption does not always protect data from hacking. For example, in 2013 hackers attacked Target Corporation and managed to compromise the information of up to 40 million credit cards. According to Target, the credit card information was encrypted, but the hackers sophistication still broke through the encryption. This hack was the second largest breach of its kind in U.S. history and led to an investigation by the U.S. Secret Service and the Justice Department.

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Cloud Services | Design In The Cloud | Autodesk

Cloud services and cloud storage are available with a subscription or maintenance plan for some software. You can also subscribe separately to specific cloud services as you need them.

General design & collaboration

Project collaboration software to view, share, review, and find data in the cloud

Primarily used for:

View, create, edit, and share DWG files on the go from your mobile device

Primarily used for:

Reality capture and 3D scanning software and services

Primarily used for:

Cloud-based design collaboration tool

Primarily used for:

Extend your teams collaboration with Revit worksharing and chat tools

Primarily used for:

Manage, collaborate, and report in the field with a mobile app

Primarily used for:

BIM collaboration software for constructability reviews

Primarily used for:

Manage project documents, plans, and models in a single app

Primarily used for:

Facilities management and building maintenance mobile app

Primarily used for:

Intuitive 3D sketching app with native Revit interoperability

Primarily used for:

Building performance analysis software

Primarily used for:

Building structural analysis software

Primarily used for:

Available only to subscribers and maintenance plan customers of select Autodesk software

Product design & manufacturing

Cloud-based collaboration tool for product design and manufacturing

Primarily used for:

Cloud-based product lifecycle management

Primarily used for:

Online product configuration software

Primarily used for:

Cloud-based 3D CAD/CAM/CAE software for product design

Primarily used for:

Create photorealistic and high-resolution images in less time in the cloud

Primarily used for:

Available only to subscribers and maintenance plan customers of select Autodesk software

Web-based 3D character generation

Primarily used for:

Available only to subscribers and maintenance plan customers of select Autodesk software

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Altcoin – Investopedia


Altcoins are the alternative cryptocurrencieslaunched after the success of Bitcoin. Generally, theyproject themselves as better substitutes to Bitcoin. The success of Bitcoin as the first peer-to-peer digital currency paved the way for many to follow. Many altcoins are trying to target any perceived limitations that Bitcoin has and come up with newer versions with competitive advantages. As the term 'altcoins' means all cryptocurrencieswhich are not Bitcoin, there are hundreds of altcoins.

"Altcoin" is a combination of two words: "alt" and "coin"; alt signifying 'alternative' and coin signifying (in essence) 'cryptocurrency.'Thus together they imply a category of cryptocurrency that is alternative to the digital currency Bitcoin.After the success story of Bitcoin, many other peer-to-peer digital currencies have emerged in an attempt to imitate that success. While Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency, and remains the best-known, it is now only one of hundreds of cryptocurrencies, which all seek to improve upon Bitcoin in various ways.

Many of the altcoins are built up on the basic framework provided by Bitcoin. Thus most altcoins are peer-to-peer, involve a mining process by which users solve difficult problems to unlock blocks,and offer efficient and cheap ways to carry out transactions on the web. Buteven with many overlapping features,altcoins vary widely from each other - altocoins differ themselves from bitcoin with a range of procedural variations, including different proof-of-work algorithms, different means by which users can sacrifice energy to mine blocks, and application enhancements to increase user anonymity.

The earliest notable altcoin, Namecoin, was based on the Bitcoin code and used the same proof-of-work algorithm- and like Bitcoin, Namecoinis limited to 21 million coins. Introduced in April 2011, Namecoin primarily diverged from Bitcoin by making user domains less visible, allowing users to register and mine usingtheir own .bit domains, which was intended to increaseanonymity and censorship resistance.

Current leading examplesof altcoin includeLitecoin, Dogecoin, Ethereum(2nd to Bitcoin in market capitalization as of May 2018), and Ripple. Litecoin is seen as the closest competitor to Bitcoin.

Introduced in October 2011, shortly after Namecode, Litecoinwas branded as the 'silver to Bitcoin's gold.' Whilefundamentally similar in code and functionality to Bitcoin, Litecoindiffers from Bitcoin in several essential ways.Itallows mining transactions to be approved every 2 1/2 minutes, to Bitcoins 10 minutes, and it also allows for a total of 84 million coins to be created - exactly 4 times higher than Bitcoin's (and Namecon's) 21 million coins. It also uses a different proof-of-work algorithm than Bitcoin- scrypt, a sequential function that is much more memory-hard than most proof-of-work algorithms. This is supposed to make it much more difficult to generate bitcoins, as increasing memory space required for the proof-of-work algorithm reduces the mining speed, and makes it harder for any one user or group of users to dominate the blockchain.

As of May 2018 there are more than 1500 cryptocurrenciesavailable over the internet, all but one of which are altcoins. New cryptocurrenciescan be created at any time; additionally, there are many older cryptocurrencies which are no longer on the market.

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How to Protect Data at Rest with Amazon EC2 Instance Store …

Note: By default, an instance type that includes an NVMe instance store encrypts data at rest using an XTS-AES-256 block cipher. See this FAQ about NVMe-supported instance types. If youre using an NVMw instance type, then data at rest is encrypted by default, and this post doesnt apply to your situation.

Encrypting data at rest is vital for regulatory compliance to ensure that sensitive data saved on disks is not readable by any user or application without a valid key. Some compliance regulations such as PCI DSS and HIPAA require that data at rest be encrypted throughout the data lifecycle. To this end, AWS provides data-at-rest options and key management to support the encryption process. For example, you can encrypt Amazon EBS volumes and configure Amazon S3 buckets for server-side encryption (SSE) using AES-256 encryption. Additionally, Amazon RDS supports Transparent Data Encryption (TDE).

Instance storage provides temporary block-level storage for Amazon EC2 instances. This storage is located on disks attached physically to a host computer. Instance storage is ideal for temporary storage of information that frequently changes, such as buffers, caches, and scratch data. By default, files stored on these disks are not encrypted.

In this blog post, I show a method for encrypting data on Linux EC2 instance stores by using Linux built-in libraries. This method encrypts files transparently, which protects confidential data. As a result, applications that process the data are unaware of the disk-level encryption.

First, though, I will provide some background information required for this solution.

You can use two methods to encrypt files on instance stores. The first method is disk encryption, in which the entire disk or block within the disk is encrypted by using one or more encryption keys. Disk encryption operates below the file-system level, is operating-system agnostic, and hides directory and file information such as name and size. Encrypting File System, for example, is a Microsoft extension to the Windows NT operating systems New Technology File System (NTFS) that provides disk encryption.

The second method is file-system-level encryption. Files and directories are encrypted, but not the entire disk or partition. File-system-level encryption operates on top of the file system and is portable across operating systems.

Dm-crypt is a Linux kernel-level encryption mechanism that allows users to mount an encrypted file system. Mounting a file system is the process in which a file system is attached to a directory (mount point), making it available to the operating system. After mounting, all files in the file system are available to applications without any additional interaction; however, these files are encrypted when stored on disk.

Device mapper is an infrastructure in the Linux 2.6 and 3.x kernel that provides a generic way to create virtual layers of block devices. The device mapper crypt target provides transparent encryption of block devices using the kernel crypto API. The solution in this post uses dm-crypt in conjunction with a disk-backed file system mapped to a logical volume by the Logical Volume Manager (LVM). LVM provides logical volume management for the Linux kernel.

The following diagram depicts the relationship between an application, file system, and dm-crypt. Dm-crypt sits between the physical disk and the file system, and data written from the operating system to the disk is encrypted. The application is unaware of such disk-level encryption. Applications use a specific mount point in order to store and retrieve files, and these files are encrypted when stored to disk. If the disk is lost or stolen, the data on the disk is useless.

In this post, I create a new file system called secretfs. This file system is encrypted using dm-crypt. This example uses LVM and Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) to encrypt a file system. The encrypted file system sits on the EC2 instance store disk. Note that the internal store file system is not encrypted but rather a newly created file system.

The following diagram shows how the newly encrypted file system resides in the EC2 internal store disk. Applications that need to save sensitive data temporarily will use the secretfs mount point (/mnt/secretfs) directory to store temporary or scratch files.

This solution has three requirements for the solution to work. First, you need to configure the related items on boot using EC2 launch configuration because the encrypted file system is created at boot time. An administrator should have full control over every step and should be able to grant and revoke the encrypted file system creation or access to keys. Second, you must enable logging for every encryption or decryption request by using AWS CloudTrail. In particular, logging is critical when the keys are created and when an EC2 instance requests password decryption to unlock an encrypted file system. Lastly, you should integrate the solution with other AWS services, as described in the next section.

I use the following AWS services in this solution:

The following high-level architectural diagram illustrates the solution proposed in order to enable EC2 instance store encrypting. A detailed implementation plan follows in the next section.

In this architectural diagram:

First, you create a bucket for storing the file that holds the encrypted password. This password (key) will be used to encrypt the file system. Each EC2 instance upon boot copies the file, reads the encrypted password, decrypts the password, and retrieves the plaintext password, which is used to encrypt the file system on the instance store disk.

In this step, you create the S3 bucket that stores the encrypted password file, and apply the necessary permissions. If you are using an Amazon VPC endpoint for Amazon S3, you also need to add permissions to the bucket to allow access from the endpoint. (For a detailed example, see Example Bucket Policies for VPC Endpoints for Amazon S3.)

To create a new bucket:

When an EC2 instance boots, it must read the encrypted password file from S3 and then decrypt the password using KMS. In this section, I configure an IAM policy that allows the EC2 instance to assume a role with the right access permissions to the S3 bucket. The following policy grants the correct access permissions, in which your-bucket-name is the S3 bucket that stores the encrypted password file.

To create and configure the IAM policy:

The preceding policy grants read access to the bucket where the encrypted password is stored. This policy is used by the EC2 instance, which requires you to configure an IAM role. You will configure KMS permissions later in this post.

You now should have a new IAM role listed on the Roles page. ChooseRoles to list all roles in your account and then select the role you just created as shown in the following screenshot.

Next, you use KMS to encrypt a secret password. To encrypt text by using KMS, you must use AWS CLI. AWS CLI is installed by default on EC2 Amazon Linux instances and you caninstallit on Linux, Windows, or Mac computers.

To encrypt a secret password with KMS and store it in the S3 bucket:

The preceding commands encrypt the password (Base64 is used to decode the cipher text). The command outputs the results to a file called LuksInternalStorageKey. It also creates a key alias (key name) that makes it easy to identify different keys; the alias is called EncFSForEC2InternalStorageKey. The file is then copied to the S3 bucket I created earlier in this post.

Next, you grant the role access to the key you just created with KMS:

In this section, you launch a new EC2 instance with the new IAM role and a bootstrap script that executes the steps to encrypt the file system, as described earlier in the Architectural overview section:

You can list the encrypted file systems status. First, SSH to the EC2 instance using the key pair you used to launch the EC2 instance. (For more information about logging in to an EC2 instance using a key pair, see Getting Started with Amazon EC2 Linux Instances.) Then, run the following command as root.

As the commands results should show, the file system is encrypted with AES-256 using XTS mode. XTS is a configuration method that allows ciphers to work with large data streams, without the risk of compromising the provided security.

This blog post shows you how to encrypt a file system on EC2 instance storage by using built-in Linux libraries and drivers with LVM and LUKS, in conjunction with AWS services such as S3 and KMS. If your applications need temporary storage, you can use an EC2 internal disk that is physically attached to the host computer. The data on instance stores persists only during the lifetime of its associated instance. However, instance store volumes are not encrypted. This post provides a simple solution that balances between the speed and availability of instance stores and the need for encryption at rest when dealing with sensitive data.

If you have comments about this blog post, submit them in the Comments section below. If you have implementation questions about the solution in this post, please start a new thread on the EC2 forum.

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Is Cryptocurrency Dead for Good? | Investopedia

Since it was created, nearly a decade ago, bitcoinand the cryptocurrency market it spawnedhavefaced a constant stream of doomsayers declaring the coin dead or headed for obsolescence. Even so, ten years later, a singlebitcoin is worth fourfigures, and it appears to have found some stability in tandem with its growing maturity. The same cant be said for the sector which now includes thousands of coins and tokens, each of which exhibits varying degrees of success.

Moreover, for all theirpromise,cryptocurrenciesstill can't seem tobreak into the mainstream. There are still very few merchants that accept crypto payments, and most financial services continue to be settled in fiat currencies. Critics saycrypto may have been a flash in the pan. For supporters, though, the signs are clear that even with the current culling of the crypto ranks, the sector will emerge stronger.

The real question is, which group is right?

As of August 2018, the number of cryptocurrencies on the market liessomewhereabove 2,000. This should be a clear signal that the sector is booming, but the numbers are deceptive. A report issued in July of this year found that more than 800 of those are essentially dead, that isworth less than one cent. This comes on the heels of reports of rampant scams and fraud in the initial coin offering (ICO) market, and other signs of trouble for the sector.

The trouble starts with bitcoin itself, as the cryptocurrency faced substantial difficulty in 2018. After reaching stratospheric heights with a near-$20,000 valuation in December 2017, bitcoin prices came crashing down in January, and have struggled to reach last years' heights. Additionally, the value of crypto transactions carried out, which was astronomical in the first quarter of the year, collapsed by nearly 75% during the second quarter. The number of transactions fell from nearly 360,000in late 2017 to roughly 230,000 by September of this year.

The lack of acceptance, especially in the investment arena can partially be attributed to the US SECs denial of more than a dozen applications to list bitcoin exchange-traded funds (ETFs). More importantly, the leeway and freedom cryptocurrenciesenjoyed as unregulated commodities is rapidly coming to an end. 2018 has witnesseda drastic upswingin regulatory efforts, with countries across the globe taking a more serious and deliberate stance. This, many skeptics say, could be yet another nail in the coffin, stifling growth and limiting the sectors true potential as a disintermediating force.

On the other hand, these are not necessarily new critiques of the crypto sector. While it is true that bitcoin pricesand by extension most other cryptocurrenciescrashed in early2018, the volatility that once defined the market appears to be gradually fading. While this is bad news for speculators, it is excellent news for institutional investorswhomany believe are the key to unlocking cryptos future.

More relevantly, cryptocurrencies, and blockchain in general, are starting to garner more mainstream adoption. While merchants remain wary ofdigital currencies, banks, major tech firms, and other corporations have already started employing them.

As Ceek VR CEO and founder Mary Spio noted, cryptocurrency is nowhere near dead, its just scratching the tip of the iceberg toward mainstream adoption, when companies offer purposeful real life value and integration of cryptocurrencies, we will begin to see the next wave and resurgence of cryptocurrency. Its all about creating more natural demand and less speculation and hype. Indeed, it seems many of the cryptocurrencies that have fadedwere those based on hype and little else.

Even though 2018 has seen a downturn in the market following the bull run in 2017, we are convinced that the future holds a rebound, driven by institutional capital flowing into crypto assets. Within crypto assets, the wealth distribution will shift away from utility tokens towards Bitcoin and likely security tokens, said Agada Nameri from iCapital, an iAngels subsidiary dedicated to blockchain opportunities.

It seems that while many have shot down the idea that bitcoin and the crypto market are mainstream, the sector is determined to prove them wrong. While cryptocurrencies may still not be a standard for payments and value exchanges, the technology that underlies themblockchainis quickly becoming a standard in a variety of sectors and industries. Perhaps more crucially, the services that these tools provide are all based on, and powered by, cryptocurrencies and tokens. As companies continue to fix pain points and uncover new frictionless solutions to old problems with blockchain, crypto will flex its muscles even further.

Despite its many doubters and doomsayers, the crypto market has continued to plug along and thrive. Although prices have fluctuated wildlyand in some cases enormously to the downsidethe sector is finally starting to stabilize and increasingly appears to be leaving its infancy behind.

As more companies discover uses for crypto and blockchain, and more users accept themas a way to simplify their lives, theywill remain a central point of conversation in technology. More interestingly, as it better demonstrates its value in a variety of situationsfrom banking to buying coffeethe technology will further ingrain itself. Coins may come and go, and many cryptocurrencies are indeed likely to fail, but the sector will continue to forge ahead unabated.

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Is Cryptocurrency Dead for Good? | Investopedia

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