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Which Types of Encryption are Most Secure?

by Top Ten Reviews Contributor

Encryption can protect your consumer information, emails and other sensitive data as well as secure network connections. Today, there are many options to choose from, and finding one that is both secure and fits your needs is a must. Here are four encryption methods and what you should know about each one.


The Advanced Encryption Standard, AES, is a symmetric encryption algorithm and one of the most secure. The United States Government use it to protect classified information, and many software and hardware products use it as well. This method uses a block cipher, which encrypts data one fixed-size block at a time, unlike other types of encryption, such as stream ciphers, which encrypt data bit by bit.

AES is comprised of AES-128, AES-192 and AES-256. The key bit you choose encrypts and decrypts blocks in 128 bits, 192 bits and so on. There are different rounds for each bit key. A round is the process of turning plaintext into cipher text. For 128-bit, there are 10 rounds; 192-bit has 12 rounds; and 256-bit has 14 rounds.

Since AES is a symmetric key encryption, you must share the key with other individuals for them to access the encrypted data. Furthermore, if you dont have a secure way to share that key and unauthorized individuals gain access to it, they can decrypt everything encrypted with that specific key.


Triple Data Encryption Standard, or 3DES, is a current standard, and it is a block cipher. Its similar to the older method of encryption, Data Encryption Standard, which uses 56-bit keys. However, 3DES is a symmetric-key encryption that uses three individual 56-bit keys. It encrypts data three times, meaning your 56-bit key becomes a 168-bit key.

Unfortunately, since it encrypts data three times, this method is much slower than others. Also, because 3DES uses shorter block lengths, it is easier to decrypt and leak data. However, many financial institutions and businesses in numerous other industries use this encryption method to keep information secure. As more robust encryption methods emerge, this one is being slowly phased out.


Twofish is a symmetric block cipher based on an earlier block cipher Blowfish. Twofish has a block size of 128-bits to 256 bits, and it works well on smaller CPUs and hardware. Similar to AES, it implements rounds of encryption to turn plaintext into cipher text. However, the number of rounds doesnt vary as with AES; no matter the key size, there are always 16 rounds.

In addition, this method provides plenty of flexibility. You can choose for the key setup to be slow but the encryption process to be quick or vice versa. Furthermore, this form of encryption is unpatented and license free, so you can use it without restrictions.


This asymmetric algorithm is named after Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adelman. It uses public-key cryptography to share data over an insecure network. There are two keys: one public and one private. The public key is just as the name suggests: public. Anyone can access it. However, the private key must be confidential. When using RSA cryptography, you need both keys to encrypt and decrypt a message. You use one key to encrypt your data and the other to decrypt it.

According to Search Security, RSA is secure because it factors large integers that are the product of two large prime numbers. Additionally, the key size is large, which increases the security. Most RSA keys are 1024-bits and 2048-bits long. However, the longer key size does mean its slower than other encryption methods.

While there are many additional encryption methods available, knowing about and using the most secure ones ensures your confidential data stays secure and away from unwanted eyes.

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Cloud computing: A complete guide | IBM

Enterprises eager to undergo digital transformations and modernize their applications are quick to see the value of adopting a cloud computing platform. They are increasingly finding business agility or cost savings by renting software. Each cloud computing service and deployment model type provides you with different levels of control, flexibility and management. Therefore, its important to understand the differences between them.

Common convention points to public cloud as the delivery model of choice; but, when considering the right architecture of cloud computing for your applications and workloads, you must begin by addressing the unique needs of your business.

This can include many factors, such as government regulations, security, performance, data residency, service levels, time to market, architecture complexity, skills and preventing vendor lock-in. Add in the need to incorporate the emerging technologies, and you can see why IT leaders are challenging the notion that cloud computing migration is easy.

At first glance, the types of cloud computing seem simple: public, private or a hybrid mix of both. In reality, the choices are many. Public cloud can include shared, dedicated and bare metal delivery models. Fully and partially managed clouds are also options. And, in some cases, especially for existing applications where architectures are too complex to move or the cost-benefit ratio is not optimal, cloud may not be the right choice.

The right model depends on your workload. You should understand the pluses and minuses of each cloud deployment model and take a methodical approach to determining which workloads to move to which type of cloud for the maximum benefit.

Dive deeper into specific cloud service and deployment models, cloud computing architecture and cloud computing examples

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Cryptocurrency Exchange Says It Can’t Access $190 Million …

QuadrigaCX says it can't reach millions of dollars' worth of bitcoin and other cryptocurrency after its CEO died during a December trip to India. The CEO's laptop is encrypted, the company says. Dan Kitwood/Getty Images hide caption

QuadrigaCX says it can't reach millions of dollars' worth of bitcoin and other cryptocurrency after its CEO died during a December trip to India. The CEO's laptop is encrypted, the company says.

The QuadrigaCX cryptocurrency exchange says it can't access some $190 million in bitcoin and other funds after its founder and CEO, Gerald Cotten, died at age 30 without sharing the password for his encrypted laptop.

Cotten was "the sole officer and director" of the Canadian cryptocurrency exchange when he died, said his widow, Jennifer Robertson, in an affidavit that is part of the company's request for court assistance as it seeks protection from its creditors.

The debt filing comes weeks after Robertson announced that Cotten had died an event she described as "a shock to all of us."

"Gerry died due to complications with Crohn's disease on December 9, 2018 while travelling in India," Robertson wrote, "where he was opening an orphanage to provide a home and safe refuge for children in need."

Robertson, who is executor of Cotten's estate, also announced that Quadriga has put new limits on daily withdrawals, trying to keep pace with demand and resolve transaction problems that lingered through much of last year.

In an update on its website about the debt filing, the exchange says it is facing "significant financial issues" that are keeping it from disbursing customers' funds.

The company says that it has "very significant cryptocurrency reserves" but that it can't locate or secure those reserves.

As of the end of January, Quadriga had some 115,000 users with balances in their accounts, Robertson said. Those users' cryptocurrency was valued at $137 million in mid-December, with another $53 million in the form of government currency. The bulk of the holdings are in bitcoin; smaller amounts are held in other popular cryptocurrencies, including Litecoin and Ethereum.

Even before Cotten's death, Quadriga was struggling to cope with transaction delays and other problems after legal disputes with a large bank and payment processors resulted in tens of millions of dollars being frozen.

In large part, Quadriga's biggest crisis lies in how it (as well as many other exchanges) stores cryptocurrency customers' funds in "hot wallets" that are used for quick-turnaround withdrawals and payments and in "cold wallets" that are stored offline to protect them from thieves and hackers.

Similar to how bank customers might split their checking and savings accounts, the cold wallets hold far more money; they are tapped only when hot wallets run low or when a user wants to make a large withdrawal. What is particularly problematic for Quadriga is that its CEO seems to be the only person who held the keys to those transactions.

"The transfer of coins from the cold wallet to the hot wallet was performed manually by [Cotten]," the affidavit from Robertson states.

Quadriga did not have offices or a bank account of its own; in the court filing, Robertson said, "Gerry ran the business through his laptop, mostly at our home, but also wherever he happened to be."

"I do not have any documents or records" for the business, Robertson added, saying that she had searched the couple's home in Fall River, Nova Scotia, and other locations but had found nothing.

The laptop that Cotten used to move funds between cold wallets and hot wallets is encrypted and locked leaving the exchange paralyzed after Cotten's death, Robertson said.

"I do not know the password or recovery key," she added. "Despite repeated and diligent searches, I have not been able to find them written down anywhere."

Robertson said she and Quadriga have hired a security expert to try to break the encryption on Cotten's laptop and an encrypted USB key. But she added that so far, the expert has had only limited success.

Saying "there should be in excess of $180 million [Canadian] of coins in cold storage" or $137 million Robertson wrote that the company is still trying to access the wallets, in addition to looking into the possibility that Cotten had used other exchanges to secure some of the funds.

That has left Quadriga customers wondering when and whether they'll see their money. Discussion boards on Reddit are peppered with skeptical comments about the company's efforts to work out its issues, and some users say they have upwards of $80,000 or $100,000 that has been locked away from them.

"This is a tough lesson learned. I would probably avoid [cryptocurrency] in the future," Quadriga user Elvis Cavalic of Calgary, Alberta, told the CBC news agency. After not being able to withdraw $15,000 [Canadian], he said, "They've left us completely in the dark. I'm kind of preparing for the worst."

In the debt filing, Robertson said she has faced threats and has seen speculation online about whether Cotten is actually alive some comments on Reddit and elsewhere have speculated that his death could be an elaborate ruse to siphon money away from the exchange's customers.

Robertson's affidavit notes that a copy of Cotten's death certificate was submitted to the court, with the J.A. Snow Funeral Home stating that he died on Dec. 9, 2018, in Jaipur, India.

In seeking protection from creditors, Robertson said she had convened a board of directors to run the company. And she asked the court to give Quadriga "additional time to find whatever stores of cryptocurrency may be available" and resolve other outstanding issues.

"If this cannot be done in an orderly fashion, many, if not all users, may suffer damage," she wrote.

The next legal step for the company is expected Tuesday, when it will ask the Nova Scotia Supreme Court to appoint Ernst & Young to monitor its debt proceedings as an independent third party.

When Quadriga was fully operational, its users could use a variety of means to fund an account with the exchange, from online transfers and automatic deposits to paying via cash or a debit card at thousands of Canada Post locations. Robertson said the many types of deposits made it difficult for the company to stop the inflow of money even as it lost its ability to access or disburse funds.

Robertson said Quadriga would consider selling its cryptocurrency platform as an option to fulfill its obligations to customers and creditors. Other companies have already come forward to express interest, she said, warning that the platform's value would almost certainly be undercut if the company faced a legal threat from its users.

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FusionCloud Full-Stack Private Cloud – Huawei Enterprise

FusionSphere Openstack

FusionSphere OpenStack is Huaweis commercial OpenStack release with a built-in Huawei KVM virtualization engine based on open-source OpenStack. It incorporates enterprise-level enhancements to its computing, storage, network management, installation and maintenance, security, and reliability. This solution is the optimal commercial OpenStack choice for enterprise private cloud, carrier NFV, and public cloud service providers.

The ManageOne solution provides a unified Data Center (DC) management platform and supports agile operation and simplified O&M. The solution offers reliable service quality assurance and distributed cloud DC coordination. ManageOne has the following features: - DCs are physically distributed and logically centralized. - Centrally managed multiple DCs, heterogeneous virtualization platforms, and O&M activities.Based on the Virtual Data Center (VDC) mode, a data center can be used to provide different resource services for different departments and services, allowing for separation of resource construction and usage, while matching enterprise and carrier management modes.

Huaweis hybrid cloud solution, FusionBridge, supports eight unified services and provides standard OpenStack APIs. It enables automatic cross-cloud network connection while providing uniform images, resource view, and service catalog. This solution helps enterprises readily deploy services across clouds, shortens deployment time, and facilitates cross-platform operations and O&M.

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FusionCloud Full-Stack Private Cloud - Huawei Enterprise

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JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE)

HS256 HMAC using SHA-256 alg Required [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.2] n/a HS384 HMAC using SHA-384 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.2] n/a HS512 HMAC using SHA-512 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.2] n/a RS256 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-256 alg Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.3] n/a RS384 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-384 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.3] n/a RS512 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 using SHA-512 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.3] n/a ES256 ECDSA using P-256 and SHA-256 alg Recommended+ [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.4] n/a ES384 ECDSA using P-384 and SHA-384 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.4] n/a ES512 ECDSA using P-521 and SHA-512 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.4] n/a PS256 RSASSA-PSS using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.5] n/a PS384 RSASSA-PSS using SHA-384 and MGF1 with SHA-384 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.5] n/a PS512 RSASSA-PSS using SHA-512 and MGF1 with SHA-512 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.5] n/a none No digital signature or MAC performed alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 3.6] n/a RSA1_5 RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 alg Recommended- [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.2] n/a RSA-OAEP RSAES OAEP using default parameters alg Recommended+ [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.3] n/a RSA-OAEP-256 RSAES OAEP using SHA-256 and MGF1 with SHA-256 alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.3] n/a A128KW AES Key Wrap using 128-bit key alg Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.4] n/a A192KW AES Key Wrap using 192-bit key alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.4] n/a A256KW AES Key Wrap using 256-bit key alg Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.4] n/a dir Direct use of a shared symmetric key alg Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.5] n/a ECDH-ES ECDH-ES using Concat KDF alg Recommended+ [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.6] n/a ECDH-ES+A128KW ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A128KW" wrapping alg Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.6] n/a ECDH-ES+A192KW ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A192KW" wrapping alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.6] n/a ECDH-ES+A256KW ECDH-ES using Concat KDF and "A256KW" wrapping alg Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.6] n/a A128GCMKW Key wrapping with AES GCM using 128-bit key alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.7] n/a A192GCMKW Key wrapping with AES GCM using 192-bit key alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.7] n/a A256GCMKW Key wrapping with AES GCM using 256-bit key alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.7] n/a PBES2-HS256+A128KW PBES2 with HMAC SHA-256 and "A128KW" wrapping alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.8] n/a PBES2-HS384+A192KW PBES2 with HMAC SHA-384 and "A192KW" wrapping alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.8] n/a PBES2-HS512+A256KW PBES2 with HMAC SHA-512 and "A256KW" wrapping alg Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 4.8] n/a A128CBC-HS256 AES_128_CBC_HMAC_SHA_256 authenticated encryption algorithm enc Required [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 5.2.3] n/a A192CBC-HS384 AES_192_CBC_HMAC_SHA_384 authenticated encryption algorithm enc Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 5.2.4] n/a A256CBC-HS512 AES_256_CBC_HMAC_SHA_512 authenticated encryption algorithm enc Required [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 5.2.5] n/a A128GCM AES GCM using 128-bit key enc Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 5.3] n/a A192GCM AES GCM using 192-bit key enc Optional [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 5.3] n/a A256GCM AES GCM using 256-bit key enc Recommended [IESG] [RFC7518, Section 5.3] n/a EdDSA EdDSA signature algorithms alg Optional [IESG] [RFC8037, Section 3.1] [RFC8032] RS1 RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5 with SHA-1 JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] RSA-OAEP-384 RSA-OAEP using SHA-384 and MGF1 with SHA-384 alg Optional [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] n/a RSA-OAEP-512 RSA-OAEP using SHA-512 and MGF1 with SHA-512 alg Optional [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] n/a A128CBC AES CBC using 128 bit key JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] A192CBC AES CBC using 192 bit key JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] A256CBC AES CBC using 256 bit key JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] A128CTR AES CTR using 128 bit key JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] A192CTR AES CTR using 192 bit key JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] A256CTR AES CTR using 256 bit key JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms] HS1 HMAC using SHA-1 JWK Prohibited [W3C_Web_Cryptography_Working_Group] [] [draft-irtf-cfrg-webcrypto-algorithms]

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Chessdom | Chess, chess news, live chess games

Written by Guy Haworth and Nelson Hernandez Reading, UK and Maryland, USA This is the...

Former world champion Vladimir Kramnik (43) has just announced that he will end his career as a professional chess player....

GM Pantsulaia Levan (Georgia) with 8.5 points emerged the Champion after the tenth and final round in the 11th Chennai...

Former National Champion International Master G Akash shared the lead with 4.0 points after the fourth round of the 11th...

The second edition of TCEC Cup, the minor trophy of the Top Chess Engine Championship, is going to start this...

The second edition of TCEC Cup, the minor trophy of the Top Chess Engine Championship, is going to start this...

In a brief post FIDE announced that a bank account is opened with Caixa Bank, one of the largest banks...

The first super tournament of the year is about to start...

The Portuguese Chess Federation will hold the Portugal Open from 2-10th February 2019 at the Pavilho Casal Vistoso in Lisbon....

The 19-years old Grandmaster Bai Jinshi from China has won the 28th Annual North American Open that was held from...

The King Salman World Blitz Chess Championship concluded today in the Manege, St. Petersburg, with Magnus Carlsen (Norway) and Kateryna...

FIDE and Kirsan Ilyumzhinov have concluded a Settlement Agreement, which was approved by the FIDE Ethics Commission and by the...

The King Salman World Rapid Championship 2018 concluded today in St.Petersburg with Russian young star Daniil Dubov claiming the gold...

The US Chess Federation is pleased to announce that Grandmaster (GM) Leinier Domnguez, originally from Cuba and currently living in...

Interview with Mark Lefler and Larry Kaufman...

American Grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura defeated Frenchman Maxime Vachier-Lagrave in the London Chess Classic and Grand Chess Tour Final by the...

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Chessdom | Chess, chess news, live chess games

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Altcoin Trader South Africa – ice3x Altcoin Exchange …

Altcoin Trader activity in South Africa is on the increase. Find out more about alternate cryptocurrencies and real alternatives to Bitcoin. Bitcoin Traders and Altcoin Traders in South Africa will find useful information about every alternative coin that an altcoin trader may be interested in. Client download locations, mining guides, exchange info and more.

The options available to an altcoin trader in South Africa and Nigeria are limited when it comes to exchanging ZAR or NGN for altcoins. iCE3X currently offers multiple altcoin markets, as well as dynamic deposit options using iCE3X Flow.

Altcoin Traders in South Africa and Nigeria have been frustrated, as we have had to play catch-up. But altcoin traders can now trade Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin cash and many more, for South African Rand (ZAR) or Nigerian Naira (NGN) using the iCE3X website on mobile or desktop. We are not only behind people who are trading bitcoin as this cryptocurrency is the most expensive and spoken of. We are constantly investigating new altcoins if we find that they are worth investing in, and not just another. Ponzi schemes! That is why our motto is: to protect our traders interests, by being confident and familiar with the coins that we are offering you to trade with on our platform.

Its very common nowadays for companies to introduce mobile versions or applications (app) for their websites. Although the customers of these companies might think on the one hand its a great feature and on the other that the app creates a sense of security, sustainability or reliability off the company, they are likely to be mistaken! Most of the times these attributes attached to companies with a mobile app are false. Let me tell you something, do not be fooled! When you install an app to your mobile device there is a +1 way for hackers to hack your phone, tablet or whatever you use!

Not only do these companies introducing their app have to develop top-notch security for their website andtrading platform but also for their new app to avoid hacking. I would not count much on that, as it would be costly and time-consuming and therefore not high on the priority list of most companies.

The real question on your lips might be if iCE3x has an app. The answer is no and will remain no for future references as well!

Instead of creating or designing an app and not being 101% sure that our customers (YOU) are safe and secure, we have rather opted to designed our cryptocurrency exchange website to look and function exactly like an app, when you reach it with your mobile browser. Isnt it smart? ICE3x as a company therefore provides true security, sustainability and reliability to our customers!

The above screenshot is an example of night vision mode. I personally like this mode best.

iCE3X is the premier destination for serious bitcoin and altcoin traders in South Africa and Nigeria.

We at iCE3X offers the following altcoins:

Altcoin traders should consider these tokens a little like trading penny stocks. There are huge opportunities for quick profits. This is because the risk is high. At the same time, the opportunities for loss is real and substantial. As usual, altcoin traders should only trade with funds they are willing to lose. You need to keep that in mind if you are a real altcoin trader. Simply, because its hard to determine if some altcoins is a Ponzi scheme. For example: You will have a scenario where many altcoins start at a very low price like R0.50. Later on, due to false information, those altcoins reach very high prices in relation to what the start price was. If you as an altcoin trader are too late buying or selling, you may end up spending/losing money that you wont be getting back any time soon!

Another example which is also a big issue is when the owner of the altcoin can produce as many coins as they want. You cant rely on that, because if the price goes up, the altcoin owner will produce X amount, and sell for less than you. Again, you are the one who will be screwed. For that reason, be careful! We at iCE3X take care of this by avoiding trade with altcoins that are not proven.

There is a legitimate crypto frenzy at the moment. The blockchain technology that underpins these altcoins is currently hyped. Many traders, even in mainstream finance, are now more interested in becoming altcoin traders. It is easier and faster to get involved in altcoin trading as it costs less than Bitcoin currently but with real potential to rise to Bitcoin value fast. Who can predict that bitcoins price will skyrocket again as it did in 2017? The bitcoin price at the time of write is R95 500. No one can predict or confirm with accuracy that it will reach the all-time high of R300 000 anytime soon. It is more attractive to spend less now with great prospects of eventually making more. The bottom line is still, that if you are not willing to lose money, you are better off to consider to invest in altcoin.

We recommend that as an altcoin trader, you can give yourself an advantage above the rest and make good profits by doing the following:

At iCE3X we will help our altcoin traders, as much as we can, every step of the way.

Tell us, are you an altcoin trader yet?

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Altcoin Trader South Africa - ice3x Altcoin Exchange ...

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Download COMODO Internet Security –

COMODO Internet Security Premium is an antivirus system that aims to protect your system, files and folders against online threats. It includes an antivirus module, combined with firewall features build an unbreakable shield.

COMODO Internet Security Premium offers to change your DNS servers to COMODO SecureDNS servers (it has a description), and to enable "Cloud Based Behavior Analysis" of unrecognized programs by submitting them to COMODO.

When the program is launched, you are welcomed by three windows. In one of them, COMODO searched for updates, another one informed us of how the firewall had detected a new private network that our PC was about to join, and another one which is the software's interface.

Updating takes several minutes, after which COMODO runs an automatic scan on your computer (which takes a really long time, but it's thorough). The GUI is very eye-catching and simple to follow.

COMODO seems to have a lot of features for each main function, but they are well organized. The antivirus section lets you run or schedule a scan (a full scan, on critical areas, or a spyware scan), configure the scanner settings, view antivirus events and quarantined items, but also submit suspicious files to COMODO to be further analyzed.

The firewall lets you view events and alerts that were possibly triggered by attacks on the computer, define a new trusted or blocked application, create a set of global rules, and configure various options.

Defense+ has some interesting features, such as running a program in the Sandbox (a "safe haven" for untrusted, restricted, limited or partially limited applications), adding or removing files to and from your local safe executable database, and viewing unrecognized files (which are automatically placed in the Sandbox until further notice).

Surprisingly enough, COMODO uses very little CPU and memory resources while scanning is active. But other system applications run slower.

To sum things up, COMODO Internet Security Premium is a brilliant security application, but that's only our opinion. You have to test it for yourself.

COMODO Firewall COMODO Antivirus Secure Internet Connection Firewall Antivirus Anti-malware Security

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How Does Quantum Computing Work? – ExtremeTech

Quantum computing just plain sounds cool. Weve all read about the massive investment in making it a reality, and its promise of breakthroughs in many industries. But all that press is usually short on what it is and how it works. Thats for a reason: Quantum computing is quite different from traditional digital computing and requires thinking about things in a non-intuitive way. Oh, and there is math. Lots of it.

This article wont make you an expert, but it should help you understand what quantum computing is, why its important, and why its so exciting. If you already have a background in quantum mechanics and grad school math, you probably dont need to read this article. You can jump straight into a book like A Gentle Introduction To Quantum Computing (Hint, gentle is a relative term). But ifyoure like most of us and dont have that background, lets do our best to demystify one of the most mystical topics in computing.

In a few short paragraphs, here are the basics that well go over in more detail in this article: Quantum computers use qubits instead of traditional bits (binary digits). Qubits are different from traditional bits because until they are read out (meaning measured), they can exist in an indeterminate state where we cant tell whether theyll be measured as a 0 or a 1. Thats because of a unique property called superposition.

Superposition makes qubits interesting, but their real superpower is entanglement. Entangled qubits can interact instantly. To make functional qubits, quantum computers have to be cooled to near absolute zero. Even when supercooled, qubits dont maintain their entangled state (coherence) for very long.

That makes programming them extra tricky. Quantum computers are programmed using sequences of logic gates of various kinds, but programs need to run quickly enough that the qubits dont lose coherence before theyre measured. For anyone who took a logic class or digital circuit design using flip-flops, quantum logic gates will seem somewhat familiar, although quantum computers themselves are essentially analog. However, the combination of superposition and entanglement make the process about a hundred times more confusing.

The ordinary bits we use in typical digital computers are either 0 or 1. You can read them whenever you want, and unless there is a flaw in the hardware, they wont change. Qubits arent like that. They have a probability of being 0 and a probability of being 1, but until you measure them, they may be in an indefinite state. That state,along with some other state information that allows for additional computational complexity, can be described as being at an arbitrary point on a sphere (of radius 1), that reflects both the probability of being measured as a 0 or 1 (which are the north and south poles).

The qubits state is a combination of the values along all three axes. This is called superposition. Some texts describe this property as being in all possible states at the same time, while others think thats somewhat misleading and that were better off sticking with the probability explanation. Either way, a quantum computer can actually do math on the qubit while it is in superposition changing the probabilities in various ways through logic gates before eventually reading out a result by measuring it. In all cases, though, once a qubit is read, it is either 1 or 0 and loses its other state information.

Qubits typically start life at 0, although they are often then moved into an indeterminate state using a Hadamard Gate, which results in a qubit that will read out as 0 half the time and 1 the other half. Other gates are available to flip the state of a qubit by varying amounts and directions both relative to the 0 and 1 axes, and also a third axis thatrepresents phase, and provides additional possibilities for representing information. The specific operations and gates available depend on the quantum computer and toolkit youre using.

Groups of independent qubits, by themselves, arent enough to create the massive breakthroughs that are promised by quantum computing. The magic really starts to happen when the quantum physics concept of entanglement is implemented. One industry expert likened qubits without entanglement as being a very expensive classical computer. Entangled qubits affect each other instantly when measured, no matter far apart they are, based on what Einstein euphemistically called spooky action at a distance. In terms of classic computing, this is a bit like having a logic gate connecting every bit in memory to every other bit.

You can start to see how powerful that might be compared with a traditional computer needing to read and write from each element of memory separately before operating on it. As a result, there are multiple large potential gains from entanglement. The first is a huge increase in the complexity of programming that can be executed, at least for certain types of problems. One thats creating a lot of excitement is the modeling of complex molecules and materials that are very difficult to simulate with classical computers. Another might be innovations in long-distance secure communications if and when it becomes possible to preserve quantum state over large distances. Programming using entanglement typically starts with the C-NOT gate, which flips the state of an entangled particle if its partner is read out as a 1. This is sort of like a traditional XOR gate, except that it only operates when a measurement is made.

Superposition and entanglement are impressive physical phenomena, but leveraging them to do computation requires a very different mindset and programming model. You cant simply throw your C code on a quantum computer and expect it to run, and certainly not to run faster. Fortunately, mathematicians and physicists are way ahead of the computer builders here, having developed clever algorithms that take advantage of quantum computers decades before the machines started to appear.

Some of the first quantum algorithms created, and honestly, some of the few useful ones Ive found that you can understand without a graduate degree in math, are for secure cryptographic key distribution. These algorithms use the property of entanglement to allow the key creator to send one of each of many pairs of qubits to the recipient. The full explanation is pretty long, but the algorithms rely on the fact that if anyone intercepts and reads one of the entangled bits en route, the companion qubit at the sender will be affected. By passing some statistics back and forth, the sender and receiver can figure out whether the key was transmitted securely, or was hacked on the way.

You may have read that quantum computers one day could break most current cryptography systems. They will be able to do that because there are some very clever algorithms designed to run on quantum computers that can solve a hard math problem, which in turn can be used to factor very large numbers. One of the most famous is Shors Factoring Algorithm. The difficulty of factoring large numbers is essential to the security of all public-private key systems which are the most commonly used today. Current quantum computers dont have nearly enough qubits to attempt the task, but various experts predict they will within the next 3-8 years. That leads to some potentially dangerous situations, such as if only governments and the super-rich had access to the ultra-secure encryption provided by quantum computers.

There are plenty of reasons quantum computers are taking a long time to develop. For starters, you need to find a way to isolate and control a physical object that implements a qubit. That also requires cooling it down to essentially zero (as in .015 degrees Kelvin, in the case of IBMs Quantum One). Even at such a low temperature, qubits are only stable (retaining coherence) for a very short time. That greatly limits the flexibility of programmers in how many operations they can perform before needing to read out a result.

Not only do programs need to be constrained, but they need to be run many times, as current qubit implementations have a high error rate. Additionally, entanglement isnt easy to implement in hardware either. In many designs, only some of the qubits are entangled, so the compiler needs to be smart enough to swap bits around as needed to help simulate a system where all the bits can potentially be entangled.

The good news is that trivial quantum computing programs are actually pretty easy to understand if a bit confusing at first. Plenty of tutorials are available that will help you write your first quantum program, as well as let you run it on a simulator, and possibly even on a real quantum computer.

One of the best places to start is with IBMs QISKit, a free quantum toolkit from IBM Q Research that includes a visual composer, a simulator, and access to an actual IBM quantum computer after you have your code running on the simulator. Rigetti Quantum Computing has also posted an easy intro application, which relies on their toolkit and can be run on their machines in the cloud.

Unfortunately, the trivial applications are just that: trivial. So simply following along with the code in each example doesnt really help you master the intricacies of more sophisticated quantum algorithms. Thats a much harder task.

Thanks to William Poole and Sue Gemmell for their thoughtful input.

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Top image credit: IBM

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Read More.. Review – Altcoin Trader, Login … Review Altcoin Trader, Login, Registration, News

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Altcoin trader is a platform where you can buy and sell Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) in exchange for South African Rand (ZAR)

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