Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level. Development of a quantum computer, if practical, would mark a leap forward in computing capability far greater than that from the abacus to a modern day supercomputer, with performance gains in the billion-fold realm and beyond. The quantum computer, following the laws of quantum physics, would gain enormous processing power through the ability to be in multiple states, and to perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. Current centers of research in quantum computing include MIT, IBM, Oxford University, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The essential elements of quantum computing originated with Paul Benioff, working at Argonne National Labs, in 1981. He theorized a classical computer operating with some quantum mechanical principles. But it is generally accepted that David Deutsch of Oxford University provided the critical impetus for quantum computing research. In 1984, he was at a computation theory conference and began to wonder about the possibility of designing a computer that was based exclusively on quantum rules, then published his breakthrough paper a few months later. With this, the race began to exploit his ideas. However, before we delve into what he started, it is beneficial to have a look at the background of the quantum world.

Quantum theory's development began in 1900 with a presentation by Max Planck to the German Physical Society, in which he introduced the idea that energy exists in individual units (which he called "quanta"), as does matter. Further developments by a number of scientists over the following thirty years led to the modern understanding of quantum theory.

Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be (for example, a wave or a particle) but that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured. In short, Bohr was saying that objective reality does not exist. This translates to a principle called superposition that claims that while we do not know what the state of any object is, it is actually in all possible states simultaneously, as long as we don't look to check.

To illustrate this theory, we can use the famous and somewhat cruel analogy of Schrodinger's Cat. First, we have a living cat and place it in a thick lead box. At this stage, there is no question that the cat is alive. We then throw in a vial of cyanide and seal the box. We do not know if the cat is alive or if it has broken the cyanide capsule and died. Since we do not know, the cat is both dead and alive, according to quantum law - in a superposition of states. It is only when we break open the box and see what condition the cat is in that the superposition is lost, and the cat must be either alive or dead.

The second interpretation of quantum theory is the multiverse or many-worlds theory. It holds that as soon as a potential exists for any object to be in any state, the universe of that object transmutes into a series of parallel universes equal to the number of possible states in which that the object can exist, with each universe containing a unique single possible state of that object. Furthermore, there is a mechanism for interaction between these universes that somehow permits all states to be accessible in some way and for all possible states to be affected in some manner. Stephen Hawking and the late Richard Feynman are among the scientists who have expressed a preference for the many-worlds theory.

Which ever argument one chooses, the principle that, in some way, one particle can exist in numerous states opens up profound implications for computing.

Classical computing relies, at its ultimate level, on principles expressed by Boolean algebra, operating with a (usually) 7-mode logic gate principle, though it is possible to exist with only three modes (which are AND, NOT, and COPY). Data must be processed in an exclusive binary state at any point in time - that is, either 0 (off / false) or 1 (on / true). These values are binary digits, or bits. The millions of transistors and capacitors at the heart of computers can only be in one state at any point. While the time that the each transistor or capacitor need be either in 0 or 1 before switching states is now measurable in billionths of a second, there is still a limit as to how quickly these devices can be made to switch state. As we progress to smaller and faster circuits, we begin to reach the physical limits of materials and the threshold for classical laws of physics to apply. Beyond this, the quantum world takes over, which opens a potential as great as the challenges that are presented.

The Quantum computer, by contrast, can work with a two-mode logic gate: XOR and a mode we'll call QO1 (the ability to change 0 into a superposition of 0 and 1, a logic gate which cannot exist in classical computing). In a quantum computer, a number of elemental particles such as electrons or photons can be used (in practice, success has also been achieved with ions), with either their charge or polarization acting as a representation of 0 and/or 1. Each of these particles is known as a quantum bit, or qubit, the nature and behavior of these particles form the basis of quantum computing. The two most relevant aspects of quantum physics are the principles of superposition and entanglement .

Think of a qubit as an electron in a magnetic field. The electron's spin may be either in alignment with the field, which is known as a spin-up state, or opposite to the field, which is known as a spin-down state. Changing the electron's spin from one state to another is achieved by using a pulse of energy, such as from a laser - let's say that we use 1 unit of laser energy. But what if we only use half a unit of laser energy and completely isolate the particle from all external influences? According to quantum law, the particle then enters a superposition of states, in which it behaves as if it were in both states simultaneously. Each qubit utilized could take a superposition of both 0 and 1. Thus, the number of computations that a quantum computer could undertake is 2^n, where n is the number of qubits used. A quantum computer comprised of 500 qubits would have a potential to do 2^500 calculations in a single step. This is an awesome number - 2^500 is infinitely more atoms than there are in the known universe (this is true parallel processing - classical computers today, even so called parallel processors, still only truly do one thing at a time: there are just two or more of them doing it). But how will these particles interact with each other? They would do so via quantum entanglement.

Entanglement Particles (such as photons, electrons, or qubits) that have interacted at some point retain a type of connection and can be entangled with each other in pairs, in a process known as correlation . Knowing the spin state of one entangled particle - up or down - allows one to know that the spin of its mate is in the opposite direction. Even more amazing is the knowledge that, due to the phenomenon of superpostition, the measured particle has no single spin direction before being measured, but is simultaneously in both a spin-up and spin-down state. The spin state of the particle being measured is decided at the time of measurement and communicated to the correlated particle, which simultaneously assumes the opposite spin direction to that of the measured particle. This is a real phenomenon (Einstein called it "spooky action at a distance"), the mechanism of which cannot, as yet, be explained by any theory - it simply must be taken as given. Quantum entanglement allows qubits that are separated by incredible distances to interact with each other instantaneously (not limited to the speed of light). No matter how great the distance between the correlated particles, they will remain entangled as long as they are isolated.

Taken together, quantum superposition and entanglement create an enormously enhanced computing power. Where a 2-bit register in an ordinary computer can store only one of four binary configurations (00, 01, 10, or 11) at any given time, a 2-qubit register in a quantum computer can store all four numbers simultaneously, because each qubit represents two values. If more qubits are added, the increased capacity is expanded exponentially.

Perhaps even more intriguing than the sheer power of quantum computing is the ability that it offers to write programs in a completely new way. For example, a quantum computer could incorporate a programming sequence that would be along the lines of "take all the superpositions of all the prior computations" - something which is meaningless with a classical computer - which would permit extremely fast ways of solving certain mathematical problems, such as factorization of large numbers, one example of which we discuss below.

There have been two notable successes thus far with quantum programming. The first occurred in 1994 by Peter Shor, (now at AT&T Labs) who developed a quantum algorithm that could efficiently factorize large numbers. It centers on a system that uses number theory to estimate the periodicity of a large number sequence. The other major breakthrough happened with Lov Grover of Bell Labs in 1996, with a very fast algorithm that is proven to be the fastest possible for searching through unstructured databases. The algorithm is so efficient that it requires only, on average, roughly N square root (where N is the total number of elements) searches to find the desired result, as opposed to a search in classical computing, which on average needs N/2 searches.

The above sounds promising, but there are tremendous obstacles still to be overcome. Some of the problems with quantum computing are as follows:

Even though there are many problems to overcome, the breakthroughs in the last 15 years, and especially in the last 3, have made some form of practical quantum computing not unfeasible, but there is much debate as to whether this is less than a decade away or a hundred years into the future. However, the potential that this technology offers is attracting tremendous interest from both the government and the private sector. Military applications include the ability to break encryptions keys via brute force searches, while civilian applications range from DNA modeling to complex material science analysis. It is this potential that is rapidly breaking down the barriers to this technology, but whether all barriers can be broken, and when, is very much an open question.

View post:

What is quantum computing? - Definition from WhatIs.com

- Giant atoms enable quantum processing and communication in one - MIT News - August 4th, 2020
- Computer Scientist Don Towsley Named to Team Developing the Quantum Internet - UMass News and Media Relations - August 4th, 2020
- COVID-19 Impact on Quantum Computing Market Research, Growth, Industry Analysis, Size and Share 2025 | IBM Corporation, Google - My Kids Health - August 4th, 2020
- IBM and the University of Tokyo Unveil the Quantum Innovation Initiative Consortium to Accelerate Japan's Quantum Research and Development Leadership... - August 2nd, 2020
- Insights & Outcomes: a new spin on quantum research, and the biology of sex - Yale News - August 2nd, 2020
- This simple explainer tackles the complexity of quantum computing - Boing Boing - July 29th, 2020
- UK firm reaches final stages of the NIST quest for quantum-proof encryption algorithms - www.computing.co.uk - July 29th, 2020
- Looking Back on The First-Ever Photo of Quantum Entanglement - ScienceAlert - July 29th, 2020
- Quantum reckoning: The day when computers will break cryptography - ITWeb - July 29th, 2020
- Ripple CTO: Quantum computers will be a threat to Bitcoin and XRP - Crypto News Flash - July 29th, 2020
- The 6 Biggest Technology Trends In Accounting And Finance - Forbes - July 29th, 2020
- Ripple Executive Says Quantum Computing Will Threaten Bitcoin, XRP and Crypto Markets Heres When - The Daily Hodl - July 25th, 2020
- D-Waves quantum computing cloud comes to India - The Hindu - July 25th, 2020
- Hear how three startups are approaching quantum computing differently at TC Disrupt 2020 - TechCrunch - July 25th, 2020
- The Hyperion-insideHPC Interviews: Dr. Michael Resch Talks about the Leap from von Neumann: 'I Tell My PhD Candidates: Go for Quantum' - insideHPC - July 25th, 2020
- The Computational Limits of Deep Learning Are Closer Than You Think - Discover Magazine - July 25th, 2020
- China's newest technology stock exchange is thriving despite the pandemic - The Economist - July 25th, 2020
- Almost One-Third of Life Science Companies Set to Begin Quantum Computing Evaluation This Year - Lab Manager Magazine - July 17th, 2020
- Europe Quantum Computing Market 2020 | Scope of Current and Future Industry 2025 - Owned - July 17th, 2020
- Opinion |Dance of the synchronized quantum particles - Livemint - July 17th, 2020
- Quantum Software Market 2020: Potential Growth, Challenges, and Know the Companies List Could Potentially Benefit or Loose out From the Impact of... - July 17th, 2020
- Quantum Computing Market Brief Analysis and Application, Growth by 2026 - 3rd Watch News - July 17th, 2020
- Standard Chartered and Universities Space Research Association join forces on Quantum Computing - PRNewswire - July 13th, 2020
- The crypto-agility mandate, and how to get there - Help Net Security - July 13th, 2020
- Standard Chartered teams up with Universities Space Research Association on development of quantum computing apps - FinanceFeeds - July 13th, 2020
- How American Express is tapping the benefits of hybrid cloud - The Enterprisers Project - July 13th, 2020
- MIT's New Diamond-Based Quantum Chip Is the Largest Yet - Interesting Engineering - July 11th, 2020
- Chicago Quantum Exchange Welcomes Seven New Partners in Tech, Computing and Finance - HPCwire - July 11th, 2020
- In 1st Of Its Kind Webinar On Quantum Information And Computation In India, IIIT Hyderabad Successfully Conducts Quantum Talks 2020 - IndianWeb2.com - July 11th, 2020
- Satoshi Nakamoto Inspiration Gives Advice On Bitcoins Next Move - Forbes - July 11th, 2020
- QCI Hosts Webinar Series Featuring Optimizations that Deliver Quantum-Ready Solutions at Breakthrough Speed - Stockhouse - July 11th, 2020
- Quantum Computing Technologies Market to Witness a Pronounce Growth During 2025 - News by aeresearch - July 11th, 2020
- Topological Quantum Computing Market Growth By Manufacturers, Type And Application, Forecast To 2026 - 3rd Watch News - July 6th, 2020
- Quantum Software Market (impact of COVID-19) Growth, Overview with Detailed Analysis 2020-2026| Origin Quantum Computing Technology, D Wave, IBM,... - July 6th, 2020
- Regional Analysis and Strategies of Quantum Computing Technology Market during the Forecasted Period 2020-2030 - 3rd Watch News - July 6th, 2020
- Healthcare Shopping: The new age of consumerism - The Financial Express - July 6th, 2020
- Six things you need to learn about quantum computing in finance - eFinancialCareers - July 4th, 2020
- Cybersecurity in the quantum era - ETCIO.com - July 4th, 2020
- There's a Hidden Economic Trendline That Is Shattering the Global Trade System - IDN InDepthNews | Analysis That Matters - July 4th, 2020
- How Will The World Look Like In 2025 And The Future Of Cybersecurity - Entrepreneur - July 4th, 2020
- Better encryption for wireless privacy at the dawn of quantum computing - UC Riverside - June 30th, 2020
- Menten AIs combination of buzzword bingo brings AI and quantum computing to drug discovery - TechCrunch - June 30th, 2020
- Paper Outlines the Role of ERM in Managing Risks Related to New Technologies - Business Wire - June 30th, 2020
- Airbus CTO Grazia Vittadini: Aviation needs to tap emerging technologies, diverse talent to get climate-neutral - Verdict Medical Devices - Medical... - June 30th, 2020
- Is IT regulation in the DARQ? - IT PRO - June 30th, 2020
- Sen. Warner: 5G ORAN Bill Added to Must-Pass Legislation - Multichannel News - June 30th, 2020
- Is teleportation possible? Yes, in the quantum world - University of Rochester - June 25th, 2020
- JPMorgan Shows Its Chops in Quantum Computing. Heres Why It Matters. - Barron's - June 25th, 2020
- Physicist Chen Wang Receives DOE Early Career Award - UMass News and Media Relations - June 25th, 2020
- Teleportation Is Indeed Possible At Least in the Quantum World - SciTechDaily - June 25th, 2020
- Cambridge Innovation Capital plc: Annual results for the year ended 31 March 2020 - PharmiWeb.com - June 25th, 2020
- Docuseries takes viewers into the lives and labs of scientists - UChicago News - June 25th, 2020
- Should children be taught quantum computing and other sciences that are studied in college? - Explica - June 25th, 2020
- Canadas 5G Moment Of Truth - Forbes - June 25th, 2020
- The Inter-dependence of Quantum Computing and Robotics - Analytics Insight - June 21st, 2020
- 2 thoughts on Learn Quantum Computing With Spaced Repetition - Hackaday - June 21st, 2020
- New Way to Assess the Performance of Quantum Devices - AZoQuantum - June 21st, 2020
- Quantum Computing Market 2020 Key Players, Share, Trend, Segmentation and Forecast to 2026 - Cole of Duty - June 21st, 2020
- Learn Quantum Computing With Spaced Repetition - Hackaday - June 21st, 2020
- GlobalQuantum Software Market Report 2020 Sales Forecast to Grow Negatively in Western Regio post COVID 19 Impact Analysis Updated Edition Top Players... - June 21st, 2020
- Is China Threatening Americas Dominance In The Digital Space? - Forbes - June 21st, 2020
- Lockheed's ventures arm backs quantum computing and training tech firms - Washington Technology - June 18th, 2020
- Brighton scientists in the race to build quantum computer - The Argus - June 18th, 2020
- Toronto-based Association Quantum appoints Northern Hive PR - Business Up North - June 18th, 2020
- NTT Research Builds Upon its Micro Technologies and Cryptography Expertise with Distinguished New Hires - Business Wire - June 18th, 2020
- Coming out of lockdown is harder than going in - Science Business - June 18th, 2020
- Northern Hive PR rides a wave of new client wins - Business Up North - June 18th, 2020
- Global and Asia Pacific Quantum Computing Market Research Report 2020 CoronaVirus Efect on Industry and Companies, Anyon Systems, Cambridge Quantum... - June 17th, 2020
- Quantum Computing Market: Segmentation, Industry trends and Development to 2019-2029 - The Canton Independent Sentinel - June 17th, 2020
- Archer touts performing early-stage validation of quantum computing chip - ZDNet - June 16th, 2020
- Quantum computing is the next big leap - Lexology - June 16th, 2020
- Quantum Computing Market Analysis, Trends, Top Manufacturers, Growth, Statistics, Opportunities and Forecast To 2026 - Cole of Duty - June 16th, 2020
- The technical realities of functional quantum computers - is Googles ten-year plan for Quantum Computing viable? - Diginomica - June 13th, 2020
- Quantum Computing And The End Of Encryption - Hackaday - June 13th, 2020
- First master's thesis in Quantum Computing defended at the University of Tartu - Baltic Times - June 13th, 2020
- What's New in HPC Research: Hermione, Thermal Neutrons, Certifications & More - HPCwire - June 13th, 2020
- Preparing for the Jobs of the Future: The Coding School and MIT Physicists Are Making Quantum Computing Accessible to High School Students This Summer... - June 5th, 2020
- QCI Achieves Best-in-Class Performance with its Mukai Quantum-Ready Application Platform - Quantaneo, the Quantum Computing Source - June 5th, 2020
- India and Australia pump $12.7 million into AI, quantum computing and robotics renewing their cyber and crit - Business Insider India - June 5th, 2020
- Spain's CaixaBank Teams With IBM Services to Accelerate Cloud Transformation and Innovation in the Financial Services - AiThority - June 5th, 2020

## Recent Comments