Whether its a astrophysical operations, weather prognosis, or explorations for locating oil and gas resources, powerful super computers are now ready to assist the computation of the most complex problems.
Yet there are some challenges that even the fastest computing machines in the world have been unable to solve, namely the simulation of molecular structures, which has left many professionals in the medical and chemical industry scratching their heads. The development of effective drugs against illnesses, as well as better quality fertilizer to help fight world hunger, is largely dependent on the ability to perform the relevant calculations.
Another example is optimization. A rucksack can hold up to 20 kilograms. If we take several objects all with a specific weight and use, a specific number of objects must be selected that does not exceed the maximum weight of the rucksack but maximizes the value. Inventory management frequently encounters these sorts of challenges, yet mathematical evidence shows that these problems cannot be solved satisfactorily using conventional computers.
This all comes down to how computers are built. The smallest possible storage unit (a bit) can have a value of either 0 or 1. Bits are physically represented by two voltage potentials that correspond to the states 0 and 1. This binary representation of information pushes it to the brink of its capabilities to perform certain tasks.
Qubits: Superposition and Entanglement
In 1981, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman claimed that a so-called quantum computer could be used to perform computations. This theoretical concept went on to generate a wealth of interest and has since become a broad field of research and development.
A quantum computer works with quantum bits, or qubits. In contrast to a traditional computer system, the states of qubits can overlap. In other words, they do not merely represent 0 or 1, but can achieve a mixed state where they are both 0 and 1 at the same time. This is known as a superposition. When measured however, Qubits behave like classical bits and yield the value of 0 or 1.
If various qubits are added together, they do not have a defined state but exist as a qubit entirety. In quantum mechanics, this process is known as entanglement, and refers to how the measurement of two qubits is dependent on the other. For instance, if two qubits are measured and the first measures as 1, the state of the second qubit is already known.
Overcoming Quantum Decoherence
Together, superposition and entanglement form the decisive difference from which quantum computers are said to benefit: with a given number of qubits, numerous sequences of conventional bits can also be displayed. This calculation is therefore equal to the calculation of all bit sequences simultaneously. For certain problems, this quantum parallelism ensures a decisive speed advantage compared to regular computers.
Decoherence nevertheless remains a challenge for researchers. As soon as closed quantum systems start interacting with their environment, the system and environment state are changed irreversibly and errors can occur if this happens during the calculation process.
To ensure that the operations are conducted without mistakes or errors, the quantum computer qubits should preferably be decoupled from their environment which, in turn, minimizes the time to decoherence. This can lead to a possible conflict of objectives, since it is also necessary that the state of an individual qubit can be changed from the outside.
The number of qubits also plays an important technical role the higher the number, the greater the expected speed advantage. At the same time, this increases the number of obstacles to avoid decoherence with each individual qubit.
Five Criteria for Quantum Computers
Based on these ideas, in 1996 physicist David DiVincenzo formulated five criteria that he deemed sufficient for a quantum computer:
So far, no one has succeeded in developing a system that fulfills all these requirements. This is partly due to the lack of clarity surrounding the most appropriate candidates able to physically implement qubits. The energy level of an atom and the angular moment of electrons are currently under discussion, although many other possibilities are also under research.
Applications for Quantum Computing
Further progress continues to be made in the development of quantum computers. To date, none of the prototypes have shown any definitive advantages compared against traditional super computers. This predominantly comes down to the number of qubits used. The widespread view suggests that 50 or more qubits should show a benefit a number that has been officially announced but never achieved.
Experts expect that the first standard quantum computer will appear at some point in the next 10 years. Yet for those who are expecting to have a device under their desks at home may be disappointed; for the foreseeable future, this technology will most likely only be used to perform tasks on a large scale.
Quantum Cryptography: Already in Use
Beyond the development of quantum computers, other technologies benefiting from quantum mechanical effects have sparked interest. An example of this is quantum cryptography, which has been under development since the 1970s, and is now ready for implementation.
Data is the fuel of the 21st century. The world can hugely benefit from the distribution of more devices that interconnectedly generate and analyze data. At the same time, security risks such as data theft and data abuse continue to rise. Experts have estimated that cybercrime cost the economy $454 billion in 2016.
Compared to the solutions already available, quantum cryptographic processes can provide an additional level of safety and security. Discoveries in quantum physics reveal that such encryptions are not only difficult to hack, but downright impossible if they have been implemented correctly.
The aforementioned qualities of quantum systems form the basis for this level of security. Individual light particles transfer a code that is used in message encryption. The particles cannot be intercepted and measured without disruption. If someone were to try and intercept, they would not be able to access the code without being detected.
Progress in quantum computing development is the main motivation to continue developing quantum cryptography. Current encryption processes, such as RSA, rely on the assumption that there is no process in existence fast enough for the prime factorization of large numbers. Yet in 1994, Peter Shor demonstrated that this type of algorithm can be achieved on a quantum computer. The first team to produce an adequately-sized standard quantum computer can therefore hack all such security systems.
Yet this development is still a long way away from the projected 1,000 qubits that would be needed to hack RSA. In areas where secure communication and data transfers are extremely important, quantum cryptography can already offer solutions to safeguard against current and future attacks.
Read the rest here:
What is Quantum Computing? | SAP News Center
- This Week in Tech: What on Earth Is a Quantum Computer? - The New York Times - December 7th, 2019
- Quantum Computers Are About to Forever Change Car Navigation - autoevolution - December 7th, 2019
- Global Quantum Computing Market Expected to Deliver Dynamic Progression until 2028| D-Wave Systems, Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, 1QB Information... - December 7th, 2019
- Amazon is now offering quantum computing as a service with Braket for AWS - The Verge - December 2nd, 2019
- ColdQuanta's Latest Ultracold Technology Heads to the International Space Station - Business Wire - December 2nd, 2019
- Researchers Discover New Way to Split and Sum Photons with Silicon - UT News | The University of Texas at Austin - December 2nd, 2019
- Archer Materials invited to chair quantum computing session at London conference - Proactive Investors Australia - December 2nd, 2019
- Archer Materials to chair Quantum Computing session at London Quantum.Tech Conference in 2020 - Proactive Investors Australia - November 30th, 2019
- The Future of Computing could be Magnetic - Robert Lea - Medium - November 30th, 2019
- Innovate, and grow - Economic Times - November 30th, 2019
- Tech news: The quantum internet is on the way - IOL - November 22nd, 2019
- Device Puts Photons in the Fast Lane - Optics & Photonics News - November 22nd, 2019
- Race is on to build quantum-proof encryption - Financial Times - November 21st, 2019
- Atos partners with Zapata to deliver complete quantum computing solution to the enterprise - Quantaneo, the Quantum Computing Source - November 20th, 2019
- NTT offers researchers $1 million salaries in bid to lure top talent in cryptography, quantum computing - The Japan Times - November 20th, 2019
- Information overload: The promise and risk of quantum computing - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists - November 17th, 2019
- D-Wave sticks with its approach to quantum computing - TechCrunch - November 17th, 2019
- The Quantum Computing Threat to American Security - The Wall Street Journal - November 17th, 2019
- Dell Technologies on democratising 5G and the future of quantum computing - ZDNet - November 17th, 2019
- How Serious Is the Threat of Quantum Computing to Crypto? - Finance Magnates - November 17th, 2019
- Superconducting quantum computing - Wikipedia - October 6th, 2019
- Quantum computing | MIT News - October 6th, 2019
- How Do Quantum Computers Work? - sciencealert.com - October 2nd, 2019
- What is Quantum Computing? - Definition from Techopedia - October 2nd, 2019
- How Quantum Computers Work | HowStuffWorks - September 5th, 2019
- Quantum computing could change everything, and IBM is ... - May 15th, 2019
- Quantum Computing - Intel - April 29th, 2019
- IBM expands universities in its quantum computing research ... - April 25th, 2019
- Quantum computing is a marathon not a sprint | VentureBeat - April 22nd, 2019
- The CIO's Guide to Quantum Computing - Smarter With Gartner - April 19th, 2019
- This Startup Just Raised $21 Million To Bring Quantum ... - April 18th, 2019
- What is Quantum Computing ? Top 18 Quantum Computing ... - April 6th, 2019
- The promise of quantum computing - businessinsider.com - March 27th, 2019
- Quantum computing is coming: Heres why we need to get our ... - March 23rd, 2019
- Quantum computing will break your encryption in a few ... - March 21st, 2019
- Microsoft has formed a coalition to promote quantum computing ... - March 19th, 2019
- Quantum computing for everyone | Michael Nielsen - March 12th, 2019
- Ask a Techspert: What is quantum computing? - blog.google - March 6th, 2019
- IBM hits quantum computing milestone, may see 'Quantum ... - March 6th, 2019
- Its Time You Learned About Quantum Computing | WIRED - March 6th, 2019
- Microsofts quantum computing network takes a giant leap ... - March 2nd, 2019
- When Will Quantum Computing Have Real Commercial Value ... - February 25th, 2019
- The Case Against Quantum Computing - IEEE Spectrum - February 22nd, 2019
- How Does Quantum Computing Work? - ExtremeTech - January 31st, 2019
- Quantum technology - Wikipedia - January 23rd, 2019
- CES 2019: IBM's Q System One Is the Rock Star Quantum ... - January 13th, 2019
- Quantum Computing | The MIT Press - January 11th, 2019
- IBM thinks outside of the lab, puts quantum computer in a box - January 11th, 2019
- IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer - January 9th, 2019
- A new type of quantum computer has smashed every record ... - December 21st, 2018
- China bet big on quantum computing. Now the US races to ... - October 26th, 2018
- US takes first step toward a quantum computing workforce ... - September 17th, 2018
- China bet big on quantum computing. Now the ... - money.cnn.com - September 17th, 2018
- The reality of quantum computing could be just three years ... - September 12th, 2018
- The quantum computing race the US cant afford to lose - September 3rd, 2018
- Quantum Computing | USRA - August 30th, 2018
- What Is Quantum Computing? The Complete WIRED Guide | WIRED - August 22nd, 2018
- Quantum Computing Market Research Report- Forecast 2022 | MRFR - August 1st, 2018
- Two Quantum Computing Bills Are Coming To Congress - July 5th, 2018
- Senate bills would make quantum computing a priority - June 10th, 2018
- What is quantum computing? - Definition from WhatIs.com - February 5th, 2018
- The Era of Quantum Computing Is Here. Outlook: Cloudy ... - January 26th, 2018
- IBM puts its quantum computer to work in relaxing, nerdy ASMR ... - January 8th, 2018
- Quantum computing is going to change the world. Here's what ... - January 8th, 2018
- Is Quantum Computing an Existential Threat to Blockchain ... - December 25th, 2017
- Quantum Computing Explained | What is Quantum Computing? - December 21st, 2017
- New silicon structure opens the gate to quantum computers - December 14th, 2017
- Microsoft offers developers a preview of its quantum ... - December 12th, 2017
- Quantum Computing Is the Next Big Security Risk | WIRED - December 8th, 2017
- Yale Professors Race Google and IBM to the First Quantum ... - November 16th, 2017
- IBM's processor pushes quantum computing ... - engadget.com - November 16th, 2017
- Quantum computing - news.microsoft.com - November 1st, 2017
- Intel Takes First Steps To Universal Quantum Computing - October 13th, 2017
- Qudits: The Real Future of Quantum Computing? - IEEE Spectrum - October 13th, 2017
- quantum computing - engadget.com - October 13th, 2017
- Quantum Computing | Intel Newsroom - October 13th, 2017
- What will you actually use quantum computing for? | ZDNet - October 11th, 2017
- Here's what quantum computing is and why it matters - October 6th, 2017
- Microsoft just upped its multi-million bet on quantum computing - ZDNet - September 7th, 2017
- Microsoft's Aussie quantum computing lab set to scale up next-gen ... - ARNnet - September 7th, 2017